Appl Environ Microbiol 2003,69(1):290–296.CrossRefPubMed Authors’ contributions LB designed the study, participated in all experiments, performed the analysis of CGH data, interpreted the results and wrote the manuscript. GF120918 LY carried out the Caco-2 invasion assays, plasmid extraction and participated in the analysis of data, the interpretation of results and the writing of the manuscript. MF carried out the CGH assays, and participated in the analysis of CGH data and in the correction of the manuscript. AM performed the PFGE
and RAPD experiments and participated in the analysis of data. NRT participated in the design of the study, collaborated in the interpretation of data and in the writing of the manuscript. AI participated in the design of the study and in the supervision of the analysis of CGH data. SP, CB, GA and FS
participated in the design of the study, the supervision of assays, and the writing of the manuscript. DM, SK and GD participated in the design of the study, the interpretation of results and the writing of the manuscript. JAC designed the study, supervised LB, LY and AM, participated in the analysis of data and interpretation of results and wrote the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background The dimorphic fungal pathogen, Histoplasma capsulatum, parasitizes phagocytic cells of the mammalian immune system and causes one of the most common respiratory fungal infections world wide selleck screening library [1–3]. The mycelia-produced Histoplasma Selleck Ibrutinib conidia are acquired by inhalation into the respiratory tract where exposure to mammalian body temperatures triggers their differentiation into pathogenic yeast cells [3, 4]. Histoplasma virulence requires this transition to the yeast phase and expression of the corresponding yeast-phase regulon [5–7]. This transcriptional profile includes genes encoding specific factors that promote
Histoplasma virulence [7–9]. While mammalian alveolar macrophages efficiently phagocytose Histoplasma cells, they are unable to kill the yeast [10–12]. Within the macrophage, Histoplasma modifies the intracellular compartment to promote its survival and replication. The ability to subvert immune defenses and to survive within phagocytes enables Histoplasma to cause disease in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. This high potential for infection is reflected in the fact that histoplasmosis is one of the most common pulmonary fungal infections among healthy individuals . The mechanistic details that CH5183284 clinical trial underlie Histoplasma pathogenesis are still largely unknown owing to limited or inefficient genetic methodologies.