The opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and should not be construed as the official policy of the NIH. Overlapping
WNV peptide arrays were obtained through the NIH Biodefense and Emerging Infections Research Resources Repository, NIAID, NIH. We thank Dr. Thomas Monath (Acambis, click here Inc.), Dr. Alan Barrett (UTMB, Galveston) and Dr. Kristen Bernard (Wadsworth Center, Albany, NY, USA) for kindly providing JEV SA14-14-2, JEV Beijing and WNV 3356, respectively. We thank Dr. Michael Brehm for technical advice and Dr. George Reed and James Potts for assistance with statistical analysis. We also thank Dr. Alan Rothman, Dr. Anuja Mathew and Dr. Mary Co for helpful advice and comments with regard to experimental design and manuscript review. Conflict of interest: The authors have no financial or commercial conflict of interest. Detailed facts of importance to specialist readers are published as ”Supporting Information”. Such documents are peer-reviewed, but not copy-edited or typeset. They are made available
as submitted by the authors. “
“A diagnosis of idiopathic anaphylaxis following a detailed clinical assessment remains very challenging for patients and clinicians. Risk reduction strategies such as allergen avoidance are not possible. This study investigated find more whether the (ISAC) allergen array with 103 allergens would add diagnostic value in patients with idiopathic anaphylaxis. We extended the specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E testing in 110 patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic anaphylaxis from five UK specialist centres using ISAC arrays. These were divided into three groups: score I identified no new allergen sensitization beyond those known by previous assessment, score II identified new sensitizations which were not thought likely to explain the anaphylaxis and score III identified new sensitizations felt to have a high likelihood of being responsible for the anaphylaxis. A proportion (50%) of score III patients underwent clinical reassessment to substantiate the link to anaphylaxis in this group. The results show that 20% of the arrays were classified as score III with a high likelihood Celecoxib of
identifying the cause of the anaphylaxis. A wide range of major allergens were identified, the most frequent being omega-5-gliadin and shrimp, together accounting for 45% of the previously unrecognized sensitizations. The ISAC array contributed to the diagnosis in 20% of patients with idiopathic anaphylaxis. It may offer additional information where a careful allergy history and follow-on testing have not revealed the cause of the anaphylaxis. “
“Pulmonary oedema is a hallmark of acute lung injury (ALI), consisting of various degrees of water and proteins. Physiologically, sodium enters through apical sodium channels (ENaC) and is extruded basolaterally by a sodium–potassium–adenosine–triphosphatase pump (Na+/K+-ATPase). Water follows to maintain iso-osmolar conditions and to keep alveoli dry.