Results: Males are involved in severe injuries more often than females. Most severe injuries when the foreign body is localized in the ears were due to objects with volume lesser than
49 mm(3). Volume cut-off is slightly higher for foreign bodies that have been found in the nose (55 mm(3)). Objects with conforming rigidity pose children to higher risk of severe injury.
Conclusions: The presence and supervision of an adult is crucial in reducing the risk for severe injuries both in pharynx and laryhnx and in mouth. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Parkin is responsible for most autosomal juvenile recessive cases of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Besides its well-characterized function as ubiquitin ligase, we previously established that parkin could repress p53 at the transcriptional level. Interestingly, p53 was recently shown
to upregulate parkin, suggesting buy Navitoclax a feedback loop by which parkin and p53 interplay, thereby contributing to their physiological homeostasis. This equilibrium is disrupted in both PD and cerebral cancer. Thus, when parkin is mutated in PD, its transcriptional ability to repress p53 is abolished. Therefore, p53 elevation could likely contribute to the exacerbated cell death observed in PD-affected brains. Inversely, in brain-associated tumors linked to p53 mutations, the transcriptional GW786034 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor control of parkin is reduced, and thereby, parkin expression is lowered. The reduction in parkin level could, in turn, contribute GSK621 mw to an increase in the levels of transcriptionally inactive p53 that could explain, at least in part, the defect in cellular apoptotic commitment observed
in cerebral cancer. Here, we discuss in detail the various studies demonstrating the importance of the functional interplay between parkin and p53 and its impairment by pathogenic mutations likely contributing to the etiology of PD and gliomas. (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurological disease affecting bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), American coots (Fulica americana), waterfowl, and other birds in the southeastern United States. The cause of the disease is unknown, but is thought to be a naturally produced toxin. AVM is associated with aquatic macrophytes, most frequently hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), and researchers have linked the disease to an epiphytic cyanobacterial species associated with the macrophytes. The goal of this study was to develop an extraction protocol for separating the putative toxin from a hydrilla-cyanobacterial matrix. Hydrilla samples were collected from an AVM-affected reservoir (J. Strom Thurmond Lake, SC) and confirmed to contain the etiologic agent by mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) bioassay. These samples were then extracted using a solvent series of increasing polarity: hexanes, acetone, and methanol.