When the genomic DNA of SEZ strain ΔhasB was used as template, a

When the genomic DNA of SEZ strain ΔhasB was used as template, a 2265-bp band encompassed the length of its homologous arms and the deleted region of the szp gene. However, when the genomic DNA of SEZ-Cap was used as template, a 2160-bp fragment could be amplified, indicating that the length of the partial szp gene was subtracted and the cap gene was incorporated (Fig. 1c). The PCR products were further cloned and sequenced. The result showed that

part of the szp gene had been successfully replaced by the recombinant szp-cap gene, coding for the fusion protein with partial Cap protein sequence (see Supporting Information, Data S1). In addition, using RT-PCR with primers located in the cap

gene frame of the szp-cap gene also confirmed a 276-bp fragment yield from the SEZ-Cap selleck compound strain but no transcription from the parental SEZ ΔhasB strain (Fig. 1c). The nearly identical growth curves of SEZ-Cap and SEZ ΔhasB indicated that incorporation of cap into the szp gene did not have a significant influence on the growth of SEZ strain ΔhasB. A 276-bp PCR fragment was consistently amplified using primers PCV-S-1 and PCV-S-2 this website from SEZ-Cap from each of 25 serial passages, implying that the cap gene was stably inserted into the genome (data not shown). To study attenuation of the SEZ-Cap strain, virulence of the two strains was assessed in BALB/c mice. Results showed that SEZ-Cap was nearly fourfold less virulent than the parental strain (Table 2). To test whether the transcription level of cap was reduced when incorporated into the szp gene, we compared that of the recombinant szp-cap gene in the SEZ-Cap strain and the original szp gene in the parental SEZ ΔhasB strain by quantitative RT-PCR. The comparison was carried out using the strains either cultured in TSB broth (in vitro) or recovered from infected mice (in vivo). Analysis of the dissociation curves from infected samples and bacteria

cultured Levetiracetam in vitro revealed a single melting peak, and no specific fluorescence signal was detected from negative control samples. The result showed that transcription levels of cap in the recombinant strain were not statistically different from that of szp in the parental strain both in vitro and in vivo. Immunofluorescence labeling of the cells was performed using mouse anti-PCV2 antibody as the primary antibody and FITC-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG as the secondary antibody. The green fluorescence of the immunostained capsid fusion protein was observed on SEZ-Cap cells, whereas control cells of SEZ strain ΔhasB were not immunostained (Fig. 2). Flow cytometry was used to quantitatively analyze the cell-surface display of the cap-anchor. As shown in Fig. 3, the recombinant strain showed significantly more intense fluorescence signals than the parental strain SEZ ΔhasB.

Thus, increasing activation across conditions must be explained i

Thus, increasing activation across conditions must be explained in terms of the increasing diversity and causal/intentional complexity of actions rather than

their simple quantity. There are four action types that are substantially more numerous in, or unique to, Acheulean stimuli: hammerstone grip shifts; hammerstone changes; core inversions; and abrasion/micro-flaking. These GSI-IX clinical trial actions are all components of the distinctive ‘platform preparation’ operation discussed above, and their frequency directly reflects the greater technological complexity of Late Acheulean toolmaking. This complexity includes increased contingency on detailed variation in hammerstone properties, grips and gestures, and in core morphology, orientation and support, as well as a greater hierarchical depth of action planning. Subjects lay supine in the 3T Siemens Allegra MRI scanner at the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, pads positioned on the side of the head to reduce movement. Subjects underwent six sessions of approximately 7 min, and each session comprised 12 trials, corresponding to one repetition of six experimental conditions defined by a three × two factorial plan. 1. Stimulus: 20-s video clips of the Control stimulus, Oldowan or Acheulean toolmaking. 2. Task: following stimulus presentation, subjects were instructed either to simulate

themselves PF-02341066 datasheet continuing to perform the action they saw (Imagine) or to decide whether, in their opinion, the actor was successful in achieving his goal (Evaluate). Prior to entering the scanner, subjects were instructed to watch each video ‘carefully’, to ‘try to understand what the demonstrator is doing’ and that

after each video they would be ‘asked to do one of two things’, which were then SDHB explained. In the scanner, each trial was started by the presentation of the stimulus, followed by: (i) 1.5 s of a fixation cross; (ii) a written instruction indicating the Task (‘Imagine’ or ‘Evaluate’) that remained on screen for 5 s; and (iii) a response screen displaying the appropriate question (‘Did you finish?’ or ‘Was he successful?’). The side for yes and no responses was randomly assigned to the left and right button press and indicated by the position of the words ‘Yes’ and ‘No’ on screen. The response screen remained visible for 1.5 s or until subjects replied, and was followed by a fixation screen (minimum 1 s) for a total trial duration of 29 s. In addition, each session included four 12-s rest trials, each of which started with a 1-s ‘Rest’ indication, and ended with a 1-s ‘End of rest’ indication plus a 1-s fixation screen, giving a total duration of 15 s. Trials were interleaved so that in each session, experimental trials took place in blocks of two or three.

While this is an important work, it does not fully explain the sl

While this is an important work, it does not fully explain the slow and incomplete transition towards patient-centred care. We wonder if pharmacists’ own mental barriers are a missing piece. In our comparison of two legislatively progressive jurisdictions, community pharmacists in Northern Ireland provided more patient-centred responses Ipilimumab in vitro than community pharmacists in Alberta (P = 0.013), although both described product-focused roles in 39–45% of their responses. The product focus of pharmacists was also borne out in the word-cloud analyses, with very little use of patient-care terminology to describe what a pharmacist does. To our knowledge this is the first study to use short telephone

interviews which elicit a ‘top of mind’ or automatic response to compare how community pharmacists from Alberta and Northern Ireland describe what a pharmacist does. This approach engages certain

unconscious mental processes which affect and influence the judgements, feelings and behaviours of the person.[35] In the literature it has been reported that individuals’ automatic response does not usually match their self-reported attitudes.[36] The slight deception and restriction of response were intended to remove some of the effects of social desirability bias.[37] We think that our findings are generalisable to pharmacy practice in Alberta and Northern Ireland because the key demographic features of our samples are similar to regional averages (Table 3). A potential limitation of the present study relates to the fact that pharmacists’ responses were restricted VE-822 manufacturer by the study question and our request for a brief response. If they had more time to think about their responses there is a chance that they would have been different. Nevertheless, the intention of using this methodology was to prevent pharmacists from thinking too much about their answer, thereby eliciting a ‘top of mind’ or automatic response and to avoid some of the effects of social desirability bias. Another potential limitation is the use of word clouding which represents a visualisation of Cell Penetrating Peptide the frequency

of the reported words. This method may not take into account the context in which the words were used. Also the use of open questions has the potential to introduce recall bias as this approach assumes that if a term was not reported then that term is not relevant. The higher degree of patient-centred responses provided by Northern Ireland pharmacists might be explained by the differences in contracts and payment schemes between Northern Ireland and Alberta. In Northern Ireland community pharmacists are paid for offering certain patient-centred services such as smoking cessation and minor ailments management,[33] while in Alberta (and Canada in general) the current model of reimbursement provides pharmacists with dispensing fees only (as in the traditional system of practice).

“The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in

“The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in calcium storage as well as in calcium signalling. Disturbances in ER calcium homeostasis inhibit the normal folding and processing of newly synthesized proteins. In addition, gene mutations affecting protein conformation can result in an accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER. This leads to ER stress and induces the selleck kinase inhibitor unfolded protein response (UPR) characterized by an inhibition of protein synthesis and an induction of ER-resident chaperones (Paschen & Mengesdorf, 2005). Both a disturbance

in calcium metabolism and an upregulation of the UPR are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In ALS, motoneurons degenerate and the selectivity of this process has been linked selleck screening library to the special

way these cells handle calcium (Van Den Bosch et al., 2006). In addition, vulnerable motoneurons are prone to enhanced ER stress (Saxena et al., 2009). Considerable evidence is available that markers for the UPR are increased in cell lines (Atkin et al., 2006), in transgenic animals (Atkin et al., 2006; Kikuchi et al., 2006) and in sporadic ALS patients (Ilieva et al., 2007; Atkin et al., 2008). In this issue’s Featured Article by Prell et al. (2012), the presence of a number of UPR markers is reported for the first time in purified motoneurons isolated from transgenic mice overexpressing mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Mutations in SOD1 are a prevalent genetic cause of familial ALS and the transgenic mouse model shows the same age-dependent degeneration of motoneurons as observed in patients. Prell et al. cultured primary motoneurons on a glial feeder layer and showed a marked activation of the basic leucine-zipper transcription factor 6 (ATF6α), splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and phosphorylation of

the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Basal levels of these three markers were higher in motoneurons from mutant STK38 SOD1 mice than from wild-type mice and, after imposing additional ER stress by emptying the calcium stores, a prolonged and stronger activation of the UPR was observed. The attractiveness of the cell culture system used by Prell et al. is that mutant SOD1-containing motoneurons can be combined with glial feeder layers from wild-type mice and vice versa. By doing so, it was discovered that the ER stress is a genuine feature of mutant SOD1-containing motoneurons and that the glial feeder layer does not play a role in this process. Another advantage of this co-culture system is that it can be used to screen for compounds that counteract UPR induction. That such a strategy might work is indicated by the positive results obtained after treating mutant SOD1 mice with salubrinal, a selective inhibitor of eIF2α (Saxena et al., 2009). In conclusion, the study by Prell et al.

, 2011), pre-mRNA processing (Silva

et al, 2011), RNA ed

, 2011), pre-mRNA processing (Silva

et al., 2011), RNA editing (Hernandez et al., 2010; Li et al., 2011), regulation of gene expression (Holetz et al., 2007, 2010; Kramer et al., 2010), rRNA processing (Cristodero & Clayton, 2007), translation regulation (Dhalia et al., 2006), parasite stage differentiation (Diaz Anel et al., 2000; Kramer et al., 2010), kDNA replication (Klingbeil & Shapiro, 2009; Liu et al., 2009a, b, 2010), gDNA replication (Dang & Li, 2011), and DNA maintenance (Bochman et al., 2010). In addition, one protein that is involved in the selective Y-27632 order translation of developmentally regulated mRNAs is the DEAD-box RNA helicase DHH1 (Kramer, 2012). In this work, a systematic analysis of trypanosomatids’ helicases was performed, including the identification of those that are underrepresented in the human genome and could be used

as future therapeutic targets. All available amino acid sequences corresponding to helicases were recovered from the TriTryp database version 3.3 (http://tritrypdb.org/tritrypdb; Aslett et al., 2010) using different approaches including the TriTrypDB protein function predictions based on the InterPro protein sequence analysis and classification database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) or by similarity searching using helicase sequences from other organisms. The species http://www.selleckchem.com/products/abt-199.html and accession numbers of the sequences used are listed in Supporting information, Data S1. Only sequences isothipendyl corresponding to a single allelic copy per species were chosen to be included in the present analysis. The sequences were checked for similarities to helicases with the local and online version of blastp at the NCBI (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/BLAST/)

under default parameters using the nonredundant protein sequence database. Further assemblies and analysis of the amino acid sequence data were carried out using the software package Vector nti v. 10.3.0 (Invitrogen, CA). The helicases classification system adopted was based on the previously described superfamilies SF1 and SF2 (Fairman-Williams et al., 2010). Phylogenetic analyses were performed using Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (mega) v5.05 (Kumar et al., 2008). Briefly, the evolutionary history was inferred with the maximum likelihood method with a JTT matrix-based model (Jones et al., 1992). The bootstrap consensus tree inferred from 500 replicates was taken to represent the evolutionary history of the sequences analyzed (Tamura et al., 2011). Branches corresponding to partitions reproduced in fewer than 50% of bootstrap replicates were collapsed. Initial trees for the heuristic search were obtained automatically as follows. When the number of common sites was lower than 100 or less than one-fourth of the total number of sites, the maximum parsimony method was used; otherwise, the BIONJ method with the MCL distance matrix was used.

CRB of agar-cultured AA L crispatus strains were ≥ 50% than E c

CRB of agar-cultured AA L. crispatus strains were ≥ 50% than E. coli MC4 100 at 37 °C (Fig. 1a and f). CRB of lactobacilli was growth-temperature-dependent and significantly higher (P < 0.05) for strains grown at 37 °C than Trichostatin A at 30 °C (data not shown). CRB of L. crispatus 12005, L. rhamnosus GG, L. paracasei F8, L. plantarum F44, L. paracasei F19, and E. coli MC4 100 increased at a low pH and at a high ionic strength except for L. paracasei F8 at pH 3 and 4 (Fig. 2c). CRB of all five strains and E. coli MC4 100 was reduced significantly in the presence of 100 μg mL−1 of cholesterol

(Fig. 2). CRB was more than 95% for E. coli MC4 100 at high ionic strength combined with a low pH (3–4) and was completely inhibited in the presence of cholesterol at pH 3 and reduced to 10% at pH 8.0 (Fig. 2a–f). Pretreatment with proteolytic enzymes significantly reduced CRB of all five lactobacilli strains, including the S-layer-producing strain L. crispatus 12005 (Table 2). CRB by L. plantarum F44, L. paracasei F8, L. crispatus 12005 and L. paracasei F19 cells was significantly enhanced when these strains were grown in MRS with 0.5% TA (P < 0.05) Selleck JQ1 or 5% PB (P < 0.05) compared with cells grown in the MRS broth. The CRB of the L. paracasei F8 and L. paracasei F19 strains was significantly

enhanced with 0.25% mucin (P < 0.05), unlike L. rhamnosus 18243, which was unaltered when grown in MRS with bile or mucin. The SAT values of the less hydrophobic strains L. rhamnosus 18243, L. plantarum F44 and L. paracasei F19 dropped from 3.2 to 0.02 M, that is the cells were more hydrophobic when grown in MRS with 0.25% mucin, 0.5% TA or 5% PB, indicating an enhanced CSH in gut-simulated conditions (Fig. 3a–c). Three non-AA strains, L. rhamnosus 18243, L. plantarum F44 and L. paracasei F19, expressing

high CSH showed a dense biofilm formation when grown in MRS broth with either 5% PB or 0.5% TA compared Rucaparib in vitro with cells grown in MRS broth alone or in this broth with 0.25% mucin (Fig. 4a–c). The AA strains L. paracasei F8 and L. crispatus 12005 formed biofilm in MRS broth alone and MRS broth with 0.25% mucin (Fig. 4). Growth in MRS with 0.5% TA or 5% PB significantly reduced biofilm formation of the two AA strains (Fig. 4d and e). However, in the presence of 0.5% TA, the CRB ability of L. crispatus 12005 was significantly increased, and therefore the biofilm formation was increased (P < 0.05). Biofilm-forming lactobacilli strains, except L. paracasei F8, bound significantly (P < 0.05) more CR when cells were grown in MRS with 0.5% TA. Biofilm formation of five lactobacilli strains was studied after 24 and 72 h of growth (Fig. 5a). The AA strain L. crispatus 12005 showed higher biofilm formation with 0.5% TA and 5% PB stained with CR after 24 and 72 h of growth. The other four strains bound CR significantly more after 24 h in MRS with 0.5% TA compared with 72 h, and the CRB was similar for biofilm-forming cells after 24 and 72 h growth in MRS with 5% PB.

3,12,13,19–22 The rates of ILI are consistent with a study of Fre

3,12,13,19–22 The rates of ILI are consistent with a study of French Hajj pilgrims and with previous studies that have found 8.0–9.8% of Hajj pilgrims with acute respiratory infection to have influenza.13,14,22 Pilgrims who reported respiratory illness during the Hajj and those who reported post-Hajj illness were not the same travelers: only 17% of travelers with respiratory illness reported illness both during and after the Hajj. This finding suggests that surveys that only assess respiratory illness during or after mass gatherings might risk underreporting the burden of respiratory disease associated with mass gatherings. The present study has buy Pexidartinib several limitations. The study

population might not be representative of the Muslim population in the United States. Compared with the US-Arab population, the study population had a higher proportion of people of Iraqi (32 vs 4%) ancestry and a lower proportion of Egyptian (3 vs 11%), and Syrian ancestry (0 vs 10%).23 Nor could we systematically evaluate the effects of pre-Hajj health information, since there was no consistent communication or education outreach for Hajj travelers. Many respondents were

contacted see more during pre-Hajj clinic visits, leading to confusion over whether the visit itself was also a source of pre-Hajj health information. Finally, all health information was collected by self-report and so could not be independently corroborated, although self-reported symptoms of respiratory illnesses have shown close congruence with physician documentation.11 It is also unclear whether self-reported duration of illness corresponds to actual severity of respiratory infection (ie, greater viral load). This association likely represents a subjective measure of respondents’ perceived severity of their illness. Our findings highlight the role that both protective behaviors and health communications can play in mitigating respiratory illness, even during extremely large and Cobimetinib densely crowded mass gatherings such as the Hajj. Our study also demonstrates the value of conducting enhanced surveillance of international travelers both during and immediately

after large mass gatherings. The fact that more than 40% of pilgrims reported respiratory illness during or after the Hajj illustrates the potential for Hajj pilgrims to be a major contributor in the international transmission of respiratory disease. The possible role of mass gatherings in the worldwide spread of respiratory disease is highlighted by a recent study speculating that a large Easter mass gathering of two million people in Iztapalapa, Mexico City may have been a key contributing factor in the rapid spread of influenza A(H1N1) throughout Mexico at the beginning of the 2009 pandemic.24 Mass gatherings such as the Hajj pilgrimage provide an opportunity to conduct large trials to evaluate the role of communication campaigns and protective behaviors in mitigating respiratory illness.

Detailed risk information, provided directly in clinic notes acco

Detailed risk information, provided directly in clinic notes accompanying HIV diagnosis reports or collected by a nurse consultant through confidential interview with clinic staff or the person diagnosed, was reviewed. Statistical significance is at the 99% level. Of the 15 997 UK-born adults diagnosed with HIV infection in England, PD0332991 research buy Wales and Northern Ireland between 2002 and

2010, the country of infection was reported for 87% (13 891), of whom 15% (2066) probably acquired HIV infection abroad (Table 1). On average, 230 individuals with HIV infection that was probably acquired abroad were diagnosed each year between 2002 and 2010. Compared with UK-born adults who probably acquired HIV infection PR-171 clinical trial in the UK, a greater percentage of these individuals were female (19% vs. 15%, respectively), were of non-White ethnicity (16% vs. 10%, respectively) and had acquired HIV infection heterosexually

(70% vs. 22%, respectively) (all P < 0.01). Individuals probably acquiring HIV infection abroad were also on average older (median 42 years vs. 36 years, respectively), and had lower CD4 cell counts (median 340 vs. 390 cells/μL, respectively) at HIV diagnosis (both P < 0.01). The percentage of UK-born adults diagnosed late (CD4 count <350 cells/μL) was high both among those acquiring HIV infection abroad (52%; 911 of 1753) and among those acquiring HIV infection in Cobimetinib purchase the UK (45%; 4570 of 10 219). Among men acquiring HIV infection abroad [of whom 90% (1497 of 1669) were White, and 64% (1074) acquired HIV infection heterosexually and 33% (547) through sex between men], the most commonly reported countries where HIV infection was probably acquired were Thailand (31%; 516), the USA (6.2%; 103) and South Africa (4.9%; 82). Among men, the greatest variability

in country of infection was observed by route of infection. Among men acquiring HIV infection heterosexually, Thailand (41%; 443 of 1074), South Africa (5.3%; 57) and Nigeria (5.2%; 56) were the countries most commonly reported, whereas among men who reported sex between men these were the USA (16%; 88 of 547), Thailand (11%; 62) and Spain (10%; 56). Among women [of whom 96% (381 of 397) acquired HIV heterosexually, and 58% (232) were of White, 21% (85) of Black-African and 12% (46) of Black-Caribbean ethnicity], the three most commonly reported countries were Zimbabwe (9.8%; 39), Nigeria (9.3%; 37) and Jamaica (9.1%; 36). In contrast to men, the greatest variability in country of infection among women was observed by ethnicity. Among women of White ethnicity, Kenya (9.1%; 21 of 232), South Africa (7.8%; 18) and Thailand (7.

The author has no acknowledgements or financial or other interest

The author has no acknowledgements or financial or other interests to disclose. “

studies have shown that pre-exposure find more prophylaxis (PrEP) can substantially reduce the chance of acquiring HIV infection. However, PrEP efficacy has been found to be compromised in macaque studies if the challenge virus is antiretroviral therapy (ART)-resistant. Our objective was to evaluate the likelihood that a UK man who has sex with men (MSM) would be exposed to PrEP-resistant HIV in a homosexual encounter with an HIV-infectious partner. Data from the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) study were linked to the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database for HIV-1-positive MSM patients seen between 2005 and 2008. Patients were categorized as undiagnosed; diagnosed but ART-naïve; ART-experienced and on treatment; and ART-experienced and on a treatment interruption. Considering current PrEP regimens, resistance to (a) tenofovir (TDF) alone, (b) TDF and emtricitabine (FTC), and

(c) TDF or FTC was estimated. Patients without resistance tests had PrEP resistance imputed using bootstrapping and logistic regression models. The population-level prevalence of PrEP resistance in HIV-infectious individuals in 2008 was estimated to be 1.6, 0.9 and 4.1% for PrEP resistance definitions a, b and c, respectively. Prevalence in ART-experienced patients Vasopressin Receptor was highest, with negligible circulating resistance amongst Inhibitor Library ART-naïve individuals. The levels of resistance declined over the period of study. Our analysis indicates low levels of resistance to proposed PrEP drugs. The estimated PrEP resistance prevalence in UK HIV-infected MSM is towards the lower range of values used in simulation studies which have suggested that circulating PrEP drug resistance will have a negligible impact on PrEP efficacy at the population level. Several recent trials have provided evidence that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could be effective at reducing HIV transmission. The CAPRISA-004 trial [1], in South

African women, showed that a tenofovir (TDF) microbicide reduced HIV acquisition by 39% [95% confidence interval (CI) 6–60%] compared with a placebo. Two further trials investigating the use of combination oral emtricitabine (FTC) and TDF (TDF-FTC) PrEP in heterosexual African couples (CDC-TDF2 and PARTNERS PrEP) reported efficacies of 63% (95% CI 21–84%) and 73% (95% CI 49–85%), respectively, although another trial (FEM-PREP) in African women was terminated early after finding no protective effect for TDF-FTC. The iPrEx study [2] in men who have sex with men (MSM) found a 44% (95% CI 15–63%) reduction in HIV incidence in the TDF-FTC group. One of the dangers of using antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention is HIV ART resistance.

0 (Table 1) The four strains had a wider range of viable tempera

0 (Table 1). The four strains had a wider range of viable temperature and pH conditions than L. plantarum chikuso-1, which can grow at 15–45 °C and at pH 3.5–6.0 (Cai et al., 2003), or L. plantarum NGRI0320, which

can grow at 15 °C but not 45 °C (Tanaka et al., 2000). Therefore, these four strains may be useful for developing an advanced L. plantarum subsp. plantarum-containing inoculant. In rice grains, glucose, maltose, maltotriose, sucrose, raffinose, stachyose, fructose, xylose, raffinose, and arabinose are detectable (Murata et al., 1966; Singh & Juliano, 1977). In hydrolysates of rice straw, glucose, xylose, fructose, and arabinose are major monosaccharides, Sorafenib manufacturer whereas small amounts of fucose, mannose, galactose, and rhamnose also are present (Sugahara et al., 1992; Sulbaran-de-Ferrer et al., 2003). In the analysis of their carbohydrate utilization, the tested strains had unique fermentation patterns compared with the type strains of the L. plantarum group (Table 2). In addition, differences in carbohydrate fermentation patterns were found among the L. plantarum subsp. plantarum strains selleck chemicals in spite of the high similarity of their genetic backgrounds. For example, strains TO1000 and

TO1001 showed positive reactions for utilization of l-arabinose, whereas TO 1002 and TO 1003 were negative. TO1001 had no ability to use l-rhamnose. Only TO1000 was able to assimilate starch, which is a major constituent of rice grains (Baun et al., 1970;

Perdon et al., 1975; Perez et al., 1975). The potential to utilize carbohydrates might be an important factor in effectiveness of LAB inoculants on silage fermentation quality. Next, Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase we evaluated the four strains as additives for whole crop paddy rice silage. The DM of paddy rice materials used was 43.0%. The pH value of homogenates of the materials was 6.24. Organic acids such as lactic acid, propionic acid, and n-butyric acid were not present at detectable levels. The VBN content was 0.02 g kg−1 FM. Before ensiling, the microbiological composition was LAB (6.66 log CFU g−1 FM), coliform bacteria (6.62), yeasts (8.26), aerobic bacteria (8.28), clostridia (3.00), bacilli (3.18), and molds (4.70). As shown in Table 3, all strains increased fermentation rates in whole crop paddy rice silage, resulting in a significant pH decrease after 30 days of storage. Even within the same subspecies, a significant difference in pH after fermentation was observed between TO1000 and TO1002. Likewise, differences in the content of organic acids and VBN were also found among the treatments (Table 3). For example, the lactic acid content in LAB-treated samples was significantly higher than in the untreated samples, and strain TO1000 had the highest concentration.