, 1999). These two results probably differed because of the different patient selection and different tasks involved. Ibanez et al. (1999) studied cerebral activity during different tasks and showed Ixazomib purchase a decreased activity in the left PMv during writing. This result and the impaired functional interaction between the PMv and M1 in our study suggest that the PMv plays an important role in the generation of the abnormal
motor command in FHD. Our results show that the ipsilateral ventral premotor–motor inhibition was modulated during the different phases of motor execution in healthy subjects. During the early stages of movement preparation, the inhibition turned into facilitation.
This result is concordant with previous studies showing that the premotor–motor interactions differ according to the movements and muscles involved (Ceballos-Baumann et al., 1997; Ibanez et al., 1999). One could hypothesize that this early premotor–motor facilitation reflects a general facilitatory influence of the PMv on the M1 during the early stages of motor execution. First, the excitability of the muscles located in the movement area would increase, then, along with the adjustment of the motor plan, the premotor–motor facilitation would turn into an inhibition if the muscles are not to be involved in the action. Indeed, the inhibition DNA Damage inhibitor was restored at 50 ms prior to movement and was abolished at the onset of movement. These findings suggest that ipsilateral ventral premotor–motor inhibition may help to select the movement. In contrast, the absence of increased inhibition at movement onset, when SI is at its maximum (Sohn & Hallett, 2004a,b; Beck et al., 2008), indicates that this ipsilateral ventral premotor–motor inhibition
is not the main generator of SI. We can thus hypothesize that the premotor–motor inhibition might be complementary and different from SI. This might constitute an early step in movement selection as Ribociclib chemical structure it starts and evolves before movement onset and disappears before the start of the movement. Our results show a lack of premotor–motor inhibition and premotor–motor facilitation in patients with FHD. In patients, PMv had no significant influence on the M1 either at rest or during the early steps of motor execution. This shows that excitatory cortico-cortical connections are also impaired in FHD, which is consistent with a previous finding showing an abnormal facilitation instead of long afferent inhibition in FHD following median nerve stimulation (Abbruzzese et al., 2001). Although the major cortical and sub-cortical neurotransmission deficiency in FHD involves the GABA network, these results illustrate that excitatory circuits might also be impaired in patients and that the balance between inhibition and excitation is abnormal.