Thus, all 12 proposed headline indicators and 28 of the operation

Thus, all 12 proposed headline indicators and 28 of the operational indicators proposed by UNEP/CBD/AHTEG, 2011a and UNEP/CBD/AHTEG, 2011b are considered relevant for genetic diversity in the context of the present study. The distribution of the indicators according to type and level of biodiversity targeted is summarized in Table 3. Of the 28 operational indicators, 5 relate primarily to the ecosystem level, 11 to the species Ribociclib mouse level, 4 to the intra-specific level, and 8 cut across levels. Among these 28 operational indicators, UNEP/CBD/AHTEG, 2011a and UNEP/CBD/AHTEG, 2011b considers 10 ready for use at the global level (class A),

11 are suggested for development at the global level (class check details B), 6 are proposed for consideration/development at sub-global level (class C, i.e. regional, national or local), and 1 is unclassified in terms of level, but relevant in general for all areas (cf. Table 2). The list of indicators relevant for genetic diversity of trees is thus considerable. However, translating headline and operational indicators of species’ distributions and their genetic diversity into specific verifiable sub-topic indicators remains a significant challenge. Hardly any of the

CBD biodiversity indicators have yet found use in the forestry sector. Trends in the extent of forest and forest types are reported by FAO under Aichi Target 5 concerning loss of habitats, and the area of forest under certified forest management is reported by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) under Aichi Target 7 concerning areas under sustainable forest management (Chenery et al., 2013 and BIP, 2013). However, neither of these allows inference on the loss of genetic diversity within tree species. In parallel with the work of CBD, a process for monitoring and promoting conservation of forest

biodiversity through sustainable forest management has taken place within the framework of the UN Forest Forum (UNFF) (Rosendal, 2001 and FAO, 2002). Consequently, of several international criteria and indicator processes have been initiated for forests and many of these have made an attempt to identify indicators of genetic diversity as part of a larger set of biodiversity indicators. A summary and an analysis of these indicators are given in Appendix C. Considerable efforts have been employed for defining and implementing indicators of sustainable forest management, but few relate directly to tree genetic diversity. The most significant are probably the sustainable management schemes developed by FSC and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC), the two largest certification systems worldwide, which have been endorsed by numerous organizations (both for conservation and use). Several of the generic principles and criteria of both of these certification systems relate to genetic diversity.

We then examined the effect of uncertain allele designations by r

We then examined the effect of uncertain allele designations by randomly designating some alleles of B as uncertain, first with Pr(unc) = 0.4 and then Pr(unc) = 0.8. In both conditions, at each locus and in each replicate a Poisson mean one number of alleles not in the profile of B was also designated as uncertain, with types

randomly selected according to frequencies in the UK Caucasian database. For all these simulated profiles, one-contributor hypotheses were compared, B under Hp and X under Hd. Next two-contributor CSPs were simulated, based on the profiles of A and C. Two conditions were simulated, both used PrA(D) = 0.2, while PrC(D) was initially 0.8 and then 0.6. Dropin was not simulated. For shared alleles the dropout probability was the product of the dropout probabilities for each ZD1839 molecular weight contributor having that allele. Two-contributor hypotheses were compared, with each of A and C in turn taking the role of Q, while the other was treated as unknown in the analysis. Additionally one-contributor-plus-dropin hypotheses were compared, only for A playing the role of Q ( Table 3). Three-contributor CSPs were then simulated under three conditions, with dropout

probabilities for Donors A, B and C as shown in Table 3. Dropin was included as for the one-contributor simulations. Three-contributor hypotheses were compared, with A playing the role of Q and the other two contributors being treated as unknown. We used a CSP from an

actual crime investigation, consisting of five replicates: two using standard SGM+ profiling and three generated using an LCN protocol with 34 PCR cycles (Table 4). This example MLN8237 was submitted to us for likeLTD analysis, and as is typical only limited information about the profiling protocol was provided by the profiling lab. These details are not required by likeLTD because it estimates the unknown parameters from the CSP allele designations. We re-sampled the five actual replicates to generate simulated profiles with up to eight replicates, consisting of standard replicates only, sensitive replicates only, or both. Six distinct Sclareol alleles were observed at locus D8, but no more than three replicated alleles were observed at any locus. Three-contributor hypotheses were compared, with all contributors unknown under Hd, and no dropin ( Table 3). For the good-template experiments (500 pg), Fig. 1 (left) shows that the ltLR equals the IMP for all numbers of replicates (one through eight). This is the expected result, and the exercise shows that in this simple setting there is no deterioration in the quality of the computed LR for large numbers of replicates. Low DNA template (60 pg) generates an ltLR about 1.6 bans below the IMP for one replicate, but the gap is very small for two replicates and is negligible for larger numbers of replicates. For very low DNA template (15 pg) the ltLR is just under 6 bans for a single replicate, about 6 bans below the IMP.

Recent studies have shown that airway

Recent studies have shown that airway Nivolumab order hyperresponsiveness can be dissociated from cellular inflammation while remaining linked to airway remodeling, and some previous reports also suggested that airway inflammation, lung remodeling and responsiveness may not be directly interrelated (Alcorn

et al., 2007 and Crimi et al., 1998). Particularly, Alcorn et al. (2007) suggested that attenuated airway remodeling does not impact airway inflammatory responses or airway responsiveness. Corroborating these findings, Kenyon et al. (2003) showed that animals that received a TGF-β1 instillation had increased the expression of types I and III collagen as well as the total collagen content in the small airways. Notably, there were

no signs of inflammation PD0332991 concentration detected in this process. These findings suggest that inflammation and pulmonary remodeling may occur independently (Chapman, 2004, Gauldie et al., 2002 and Selman et al., 2001). In general, these studies demonstrate that airway inflammation, lung remodeling and responsiveness may not be directly interrelated and suggest that the lack of symptoms in some asthmatic patients who smoke (mild smokers) does not imply an absence of any pathologic changes. Bronchial constriction, for example, could be attenuated by an increase of collagen content around airways (Bento and Hershenson, 1998, Chen et al., 2003, Niimi et al., 2003 and Palmans et al., 2000). In summary, in our experimental model, short-term exposure to cigarette smoke in mice with pulmonary allergic inflammation resulted in an attenuation of pulmonary inflammation and responsiveness but led to an increase

in lung remodeling. The authors would like to thank to Ângela Santos, Maína Morales, Lucas Faustino, Matheus Costa, Pedro Vieira, Niels Olsen and Luis Fernando Ferraz for their invaluable technical help. “
“Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have increased neural drive below to their respiratory muscles in order to overcome the increased respiratory load that they face (De Troyer et al., 1997, Gandevia et al., 1996 and Polkey et al., 1996), but relatively little is known about the cortico-spinal control of the respiratory muscles in COPD. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a technique which allows detailed investigation of corticospinal pathways. A magnetic stimulus applied over the area of the primary motor cortex responsible for the diaphragm elicits an electrical response from the diaphragm, referred to as the motor evoked potential (MEP). Various aspects of the MEP can be measured and may respond to pathophysiological processes (Gandevia and Rothwell, 1987, Gea et al., 1993, Sharshar et al., 2003 and Verin et al., 2004). The simplest is the motor threshold which is the lowest intensity of stimulation that elicits a response.

In order to compare our data with those reported in the literatur

In order to compare our data with those reported in the literature ( Baumgardner et al., 2002 and Shi et al., 2011), the AL300 sensor was also connected to a light intensity measurement system (USB 2000 spectrometer, Ocean Optics, Dunedin, FL, USA), interfaced to a computer through the A/D board. Data were recorded on a computer by means of a custom program (LabView, National Instruments, Austin, TX, USA). A flowing blood test system was used to generate rapid PO2PO2 oscillations in vitro  . Full technical details of this system Selleckchem Pexidartinib have been presented in this journal ( Chen et al., 2012b). Briefly, two standard medical paediatric oxygenators (Medos Hilite 1000LT,

Medos Medizintechnik AG, Stolberg, Germany) were arranged to provide two parallel and independent extracorporeal circuits, where blood PO2PO2 was maintained at 5 kPa (37 mmHg) or 50 kPa (375 mmHg), and PCO2PCO2 at 5 kPa (37 mmHg), and pH at 7.4. The PO2PO2 reference values were confirmed through blood gas analysis (ABL710, Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark) for sensor calibration purposes and for monitoring before each experiment.

Two peristaltic pumps maintained blood flow through the circuits. selleck chemicals In order to simulate body temperature in a pig, sheep or lamb animal model, and to record data that are comparable with the published literature, blood temperature was maintained at 39 °C by circulating temperature-controlled water (Grant Instruments, Cambridge, UK) through the two oxygenators. Blood temperature was continuously monitored with a

thermocouple (TES130, TES Electrical Electronic Corp., Taipei, Taiwan). Flow from either circuit was diverted alternately towards the sensor being tested by means of computer-controlled rapid switchover solenoid valves that exposed the sensor to abrupt blood PO2PO2 changes. The frequency of the switchover was controlled by a PC together with a digital to analogue board (National Instruments USB-6251, National Instruments, Austin, Tau-protein kinase TX, USA) and an electronic power switch, and was programmed to simulate RR of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 bpm, with an inspired to expired (I:E) ratio of 1:1. For RR of 10 and 30 bpm, I:E ratios of 1:3 and 1:2, respectively were tested in order to investigate other clinically relevant conditions. Whole lambs’ blood (physiological temperature ∼39 °C) was collected from a local abattoir and heparinised immediately. Bench studies were conducted for a continuous period of 5 h. The PMMA in-house sensors were specifically tested over a 24 h period for anti-fouling properties in two separate non-heparinised in vivo animal studies. None of the sensors had any anticoagulant constituents embedded into their polymer materials ( Chen et al., 2012a and Chen et al., 2012b), and since the animals (pigs, weight circa 38 kg) were non-heparinised, these conditions presented a realistic challenge to the sensors. The in vivo experiments were performed at the Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Pilsen, Czech Republic.

Oral reports by four local residents provided qualitative evidenc

Oral reports by four local residents provided qualitative evidence for erosion during storm flows in Robinson Creek. One resident recalled that channel depth increased during the 1986 flood (personal communication, Troy Passmore, Mendocino County Water Agency, 2005). A second resident who has lived near Robinson Creek since 1933 noticed a deepening of about a meter in the past 20 years in both Anderson Creek and Robinson Creek; he has not seen overbank

flow during floods such as occurred signaling pathway during water years 1937, 1956, 1965, 1983 (Navarro River Resource Center, 2006). A third resident born in Boonville in 1936 said his house is ∼5.5–6.1 m above the creek but remembers when it was ∼4.6 m with banks that were not as steep. He said banks have been sloughing since ∼1965 and he has lost ∼9–12 m of land from bank erosion during high flows. He also mentioned that willows were uprooted during such floods (Navarro River Resource Center, 2006). A fourth resident living Cobimetinib clinical trial along Robinson Creek (upstream of Mountain View Road) for more than 35 years said she did not notice incision, but that widening began in the past decade (Navarro River Resource Center, 2006). These recollections suggest that over the past 80 years, incision and erosion have been spatially variable active processes

during floods—but that incision in Robinson Creek had also occurred prior to the 1930s. Comparison of thalweg elevations in repetitive channel cross sections measured from Adenosine bridges provided quantitative evidence to aid in determining the timing of recent incision. First, the elevation of Anderson Creek’s thalweg near the confluence of the two creeks, that is effectively the baselevel for Robinson Creek, has lowered in the past decades. Repetitive cross sections surveyed across Anderson Creek at the recently replaced Hwy 128 Bridge (∼90 m upstream of the confluence) shows a thalweg elevation lowering of almost 1.0 m at an average

rate of ∼0.026 m/yr during the 38 year period between 1960 and 1998 (personal communication, Mendocino County Water Agency, 2004). Second, several of the bridges crossing Robinson Creek within the study reach are incised such that bridge footings are exposed (Fig. 5). For example, the current Fairgrounds site was built on the location of a mill that was active through the 1950s. The present bridge is estimated to have been constructed in the 1960s when the site was acquired, with bridge repairs recorded in 1969–1971 (Jim Brown, personal communication, Mendocino County Fairgrounds Manager, 2013). Field measurements in 2008 indicated that the bridge footing has undercut ∼0.9 m. These estimates suggest that incision occurred at an average rate of ∼0.019–0.024 m/yr (between 2008 and 1960/1971, respectively), similar in magnitude to the estimate of baselevel lowering in Anderson Creek.

98% to the coast) However, further partition of the fluvial sedi

98% to the coast). However, further partition of the fluvial sediment reaching the coast heavily favored one distributary over the others (i.e., the Chilia; ∼70%). Consequently, the two active delta lobes of St. George II and Chilia III were built

contemporaneously but not only the morphologies of these lobes were strikingly different (i.e., typical river dominated for Chilia and wave-dominated for St. George; Fig. 2) but also their morphodynamics was vastly dissimilar reflecting sediment availability and wave climate (Fig. 3). The second major distributary, the buy BEZ235 St. George, although transporting only ∼20% of the fluvial sediment load, was able to maintain progradation close to the mouth on a subaqueous quasi-radial “lobelet” asymmetrically offset downcoast. Remarkably, this lobelet was far smaller than the

whole St. George lobe. However, it had an areal extent half the size of the Chilia lobe at one third its fluvial sediment feed and was even closer in volume to the Chilia lobe because of its greater thickness. To attain this high level of storage, morphodynamics at the St. George mouth must have included a series of efficient feedback loops to trap sediments near the river mouth even under extreme conditions UMI-77 supplier of wave driven longshore sand transport (i.e., potential rates reaching over 1 million cubic meters per year at St. George mouth; vide infra and see Giosan et al., 1999). Periodic release of sediment stored at the mouth along emergent elongating downdrift barriers such as Sacalin Island ( Giosan et al., 2005, Giosan et al., 2006a and Giosan et al., 2006b) probably transfers sediment to the

rest of lobe’s coast. In between the two major river mouth depocenters at Chilia and St. George, the old moribund lobe of Sulina eroded away, cannibalizing old ridges and rotating the coast counter-clockwise (as noted early by Brătescu, 1922). South of the St. George mouth, the coast was sheltered morphologically by the delta upcoast and thus stable. One net result of this differential behavior was the slow rotation of the entire Rebamipide current St. George lobe about its original outlet with the reduction in size of the updrift half and concurrent expansion of the downdrift half. Trapping of sediment near the St. George mouth was previously explained by subtle positive feedbacks such as the shoaling effect of the delta platform and the groin effects exerted by the river plume, updrift subaqueous levee (Giosan et al., 2005 and Giosan, 2007) and the St. George deltaic lobe itself (Ashton and Giosan, 2011). Thus, the main long term depocenter for asymmetric delta lobes such as the St. George is also asymmetrically placed downcoast (Giosan et al., 2009), while the updrift half is built with sand eroded from along the coast and blocked at the river mouth (Giosan, 1998 and Bhattacharya and Giosan, 2003). Going south of the St.

5, in the presence of diffuse bilateral

5, in the presence of diffuse bilateral SB431542 infiltrates on the chest X-ray, with the involvement of all lung

fields, pulmonary capillary pressure (PCP) < 18 mmHg not due to heart failure, pleural effusion, or bacterial pneumonia. In the following year, Fowler et al.15, in a study with several centers investigating 68 patients with ARDS, used the following as diagnostic criteria: acute onset of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates; PCP ≤ 12 mmHg; lung compliance ≤ 50 mL/cmH2O; and PaO2 and alveolar oxygen pressure ratio (PaO2/PAO2) ≤ 0.2. Given the diversity of criteria used for the diagnosis of ARDS and seeking to expand the definition of the syndrome, in 1988 Murray et al.16 incorporated risk factors to the definition, as well as the relative brevity of the disease process and severity measures. Regarding risk factors, the authors pointed to the need for identifying whether the syndrome was caused by aspiration GSI-IX order pneumonia, medications, or inhalation of toxic gases, or if it was associated with systemic events such as sepsis, multiple trauma, or acute pancreatitis. Severity was assessed using the lung injury score (LIS), incorporating physiological data indicators of oxygenation, PEEP values, and compliance and distribution of radiological lesions (Table 1). The score included the evaluation of

four criteria: 1) chest X-ray, 2) hypoxemia score (PaO2/FiO2); 3) PEEP level; and 4) respiratory system compliance score (Crs) (when available). Although the Murray score is still used, it has not been validated, that is, it has not been established whether patients with scores of the same value correspond to similar levels of lung injury, and thus, have the same prognosis. Additionally, the LIS has several problems,

such as: it does not consider the effect of time on injury severity (acute or chronic event); the score is not specific for ARDS, patients with cardiogenic pulmonary edema Edoxaban are identified as having ARDS; and patients with mild volume overload, for any reason, can be diagnosed as having ARDS, as it is not mandatory to obtain the PCP levels to rule out cardiogenic edema.8, 17 and 18 In 1994, experts from the United States and Europe met to improve the definition of ARDS, aiming to improve the standardization of research, the criteria for more accurately determining the severity, and disease prognosis.19 Formally, two different conditions were defined, acute lung injury (ALI) and ARDS itself (Table 2), as diseases in which there is a sudden and acute onset of respiratory distress, bilateral infiltrates on the chest X-ray in the frontal view, absence of left atrial hypertension (PCP ≤ 18 mmHg when measured or no clinical evidence of left ventricular failure), and severe hypoxemia, evaluated by PaO2/FiO2 ratio.

9 Inductive discipline (e g reasoning) is believed to help child

9 Inductive discipline (e.g. reasoning) is believed to help children to develop empathic skills, appealing to the child’s sense of reason and fairness.10 Conversely, punitive discipline (e.g. psychological aggression, corporal punishment) is believed LBH589 concentration to foster anger and unwillingness to comply, besides providing a model of aggression.11 In the field of child disciplinary practices, none is as controversial

as corporal punishment. Vitolo et al.12 found that 11.9% of Brazilian parents regarded corporal punishment as educational, and 43.3% used it as a child disciplinary practice. A broader and more recent study, with low and middle income countries (LaMICs) and the United States, observed that in Brazil, although nearly all parents Selleck Everolimus use some form of nonviolent discipline, 55% had spanked their children in the previous year, 15% had hit them with an object, and 19% had used forms of psychological violence, such as name-calling.13 While the association between physical abuse and bullying14 is well accepted, to the authors’s knowledge, no study has yet demonstrated an association between bullying and mild forms of corporal punishment, such as spanking. The present study sought to verify associations between different types of child disciplinary practices, especially mild forms of corporal punishment, and children and adolescents’ bullying behavior in a Brazilian sample. Participants

were children and adolescents from six public schools belonging to the catchment area of Reverse transcriptase the primary care unit of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil, assessed between October of 2010 and

March of 2011. In order to be eligible, participants needed to be between 10 to 15 years of age, since corporal punishment, an important variable in this study, is rarely used on adolescents older than 15 years of age.15 The only exclusion criterion inability to obtain passive consent from parents and active student assent. This study was approved by the Research and Ethics Committee of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (n° 100010). On the day of the data collection, students were evaluated in their classroom by two research assistants. Students were asked to sit separately, to prevent conferring or talking while completing the questionnaire, which took approximately one teaching period (50 minutes). Bullying. A modified version 16 of the Olweus Bully Victim Questionnaire 17 was used to measure the frequency of bullying behavior. Students were asked to indicate how often they bullied others at school. Physical bullying was assessed with questions regarding how often they physically hurt other or took their property. Verbal bullying included name-calling, teasing in a hurtful way, or threatening. Indirect bullying included spreading rumors, not talking to someone on purpose, or excluding them from their group of friends.

The higher the value of the final score, the better the QoL of pa

The higher the value of the final score, the better the QoL of patients. Maximal respiratory pressures were measured through manovacuometry, using an analog manovacuometer (Comercial Médica®, São Paulo, Brazil). The test was performed with the child sitting comfortably to measure the maximal inspiratory pressure

(MIP) through an inspiratory maneuver based on the functional residual capacity, whereas maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) was evaluated based on total lung capacity for a forced expiration, after clipping the nose. For both measures, three maneuvers were performed and the best of the three was chosen using the technique based on Wilson’s study.21 Lung function assessment was performed by spirometry Doxorubicin clinical trial using a digital spirometer OneFlow® model (Clement Clarke International; Harlow, UK) and technical procedures, criteria for acceptability, and reproducibility followed the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS).22 The forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and FEV1/FVC ratio were determined. The maneuver was performed three times and the highest value was used. Submaximal functional capacity was evaluated using the 6MWT according to the ATS standardization,22 on a flat, 30-meter

corridor. The children/adolescents were instructed to walk as far as possible in six minutes without running, and the test could be interrupted at any time. The children/adolescents were verbally encouraged, minute-by-minute, according to the test standardization, and after six minutes they were GPCR Compound high throughput screening asked to stop where they were in order to record the distance walked in meters. The parameters evaluated pre- and post-test included heart rate (HR) and pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) by pulse oximetry model OXP-10 (EMAI Equipamentos Médicos Hospitalares, São Paulo, Brazil), systemic blood pressure through a sphygmomanometer model CE0050 (Tycos/WelchAllyn, Skaneateles Falls, USA), respiratory rate (RR) (counted by chest wall incursions

per minute), and the modified Borg scale score to measure dyspnea.23 The criteria for test interruption were: severe dyspnea or fatigue expressed by the patient, SpO2 < 85%, or refusal to continue the examination. Based on the reference values suggested by 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase Priesnitz et al.24 for healthy children, the predicted walked distance at the 6MWT for the children was calculated using the formula 6MWT = 145.343 + [11.78 x age (years)] + [292.22 x height (m)] + [0.611 x (HRFinal - HRInitial)] – [2,684 x weight (kg)] to evaluate test performance. This reference was used because it is from a study on healthy Brazilian children. Based on these values, the difference of means between the distance walked by the patient at the 6MWT (WD) and the predicted distance (PD) was obtained. Values were expressed as means and their standard deviations for quantitative variables.

Therefore, it is essential to consider skin condition in the earl

Therefore, it is essential to consider skin condition in the early stage of dermal drug formulation development because of possible modified drug transport into and across the skin [28]. To determine the drug levels within the stratum corneum, tape stripping is a well-established method [29,30]. Furthermore, this method is used to obtain an impaired skin barrier [31,32]. Producing the required degree of skin impairment (TEWL: 30±2  g m−2 h−1) needs up to 60 pieces of tape, making the validated tape-stripping method by Simonsen and Fullerton [10] expensive and less attractive for a high

sample throughput. An appropriate and validated alternative method for in vivo and ex vivo testing of drug transport across the impaired skin barrier

is necessary. Skin integrity can be influenced in vivo and in vitro by various methods including chemical (by solvents Icotinib manufacturer or surfactants) or mechanical damage, UV radiation Nintedanib research buy or clinical diseases; for detailed information, see Gattu and Maibach [17] and [44]. TEWL measurement is a well-established method for the determination of skin integrity, and the fraction of stratum corneum removed is related to an increase in TEWL [10, 20, 33]. Here, various abrasive materials, for example sandpaper and different sponge surfaces, were tested for reproducibility and effectiveness of the gradual removal of the stratum corneum as well as the increase of the TEWL value (data not shown). The Spontex® Brillant best met these demands ( Fig. 1). The decrease of skin integrity was followed by TEWL measurement. After about ten repetitions, a TEWL value of 30±2  g m−2 h−1 was attained, and a plateau was reached after approximately 30 repetitions, suggesting that the complete stratum corneum was removed. The number of repetitions depends on the user and the skin sample, therefore the degree of skin damage always has to be controlled, for example by TEWL measurement. In literature, the degree of skin GBA3 damage often is not reported or even measured, thus the comparison of penetration data without information of the degree of skin

damage is difficult. Histological inspection of the porcine skin (Fig. 2) confirms the results of the TEWL measurements. After repeated treatment of the skin surface with the aluminum-coated sponge, the stratum corneum was clearly reduced after 10 repetitions ( Fig. 2, center) and finally completely removed after more than 40 repetitions ( Fig. 2, right). Thus, the damaged skin model for skin permeation studies are characterized by a visible reduction of the stratum corneum with a TEWL value of 30±2  g m−2 h−1. The skin consists of two permeation compartments, the lipophilic stratum corneum, with a water content of approximately 15%, and the more hydrophilic viable epidermis and dermis, with a water content of approximately 70% [34].