Thus, all 12 proposed headline indicators and 28 of the operational indicators proposed by UNEP/CBD/AHTEG, 2011a and UNEP/CBD/AHTEG, 2011b are considered relevant for genetic diversity in the context of the present study. The distribution of the indicators according to type and level of biodiversity targeted is summarized in Table 3. Of the 28 operational indicators, 5 relate primarily to the ecosystem level, 11 to the species Ribociclib mouse level, 4 to the intra-specific level, and 8 cut across levels. Among these 28 operational indicators, UNEP/CBD/AHTEG, 2011a and UNEP/CBD/AHTEG, 2011b considers 10 ready for use at the global level (class A),
11 are suggested for development at the global level (class check details B), 6 are proposed for consideration/development at sub-global level (class C, i.e. regional, national or local), and 1 is unclassified in terms of level, but relevant in general for all areas (cf. Table 2). The list of indicators relevant for genetic diversity of trees is thus considerable. However, translating headline and operational indicators of species’ distributions and their genetic diversity into specific verifiable sub-topic indicators remains a significant challenge. Hardly any of the
CBD biodiversity indicators have yet found use in the forestry sector. Trends in the extent of forest and forest types are reported by FAO under Aichi Target 5 concerning loss of habitats, and the area of forest under certified forest management is reported by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) under Aichi Target 7 concerning areas under sustainable forest management (Chenery et al., 2013 and BIP, 2013). However, neither of these allows inference on the loss of genetic diversity within tree species. In parallel with the work of CBD, a process for monitoring and promoting conservation of forest
biodiversity through sustainable forest management has taken place within the framework of the UN Forest Forum (UNFF) (Rosendal, 2001 and FAO, 2002). Consequently, of several international criteria and indicator processes have been initiated for forests and many of these have made an attempt to identify indicators of genetic diversity as part of a larger set of biodiversity indicators. A summary and an analysis of these indicators are given in Appendix C. Considerable efforts have been employed for defining and implementing indicators of sustainable forest management, but few relate directly to tree genetic diversity. The most significant are probably the sustainable management schemes developed by FSC and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC), the two largest certification systems worldwide, which have been endorsed by numerous organizations (both for conservation and use). Several of the generic principles and criteria of both of these certification systems relate to genetic diversity.