, 1997; Whitehurst
& Law, 2002). Compared to other enzymes, maltogenic amylase is unique in yielding significant softness to bread and maintaining a high level of crumb elasticity during storage, without affecting bread volume or crumb structure (Si & Drost-lustenberger, 2001). The objective of this work was to evaluate the synergistic effect of the use of the emulsifier sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) and of the enzyme maltogenic amylase (MALTO) on pan bread quality during storage. Medium to strong strength commercial wheat flour (Bunge Alimentos, Tatuí, SP, Brazil) was used. It presented find more moisture, proteins (N × 5.7), lipids, ash and carbohydrates contents of 13.9 g, 10.8 g, 1.5 g, 0.7 g/100 g flour, respectively. Farinographic water absorption, stability, mixing tolerance index, maximum resistance
to extension (135 min) and extensibility (135 min) were, respectively, 61.6 g/100 flour, 13 min, 46 BU, 654 BU and 154 mm, measured in a Brabender Farinograph, model 81 01 01, with a 300 g mixing vessel, at 63 rpm, and the Falling Number was 364 s. The commercial emulsifier sodium stearoyl lactylate Grindsted Natural Product Library manufacturer SSL P 2522 (Danisco, Cotia, SP, Brazil) produced from refined fatty acids was used. It presented the following specifications, according to the supplier: 80 g SSL/100 g sample, ester value 145, alkaline index 185, acid value 70, lactic acid content 25.5 g/100 g sample and sodium content 4.5 g/100 g sample. The emulsifier contained calcium carbonate as anti-caking agent. The commercial enzyme maltogenic α-amylase Spring Life (Granotec, Curitiba, PR, Brazil) was used. It had the following specifications, according to the supplier: maltogenic α-amylase enzymatic activity 6000 MGAU/g, fungal α-amylase enzymatic activity 5600 SKB/g and maximum moisture 8.0 g/100 g
sample. The enzyme mixture contained starch as carrier agent, Dimethyl sulfoxide as well as anti-caking and free-flowing agents. Its optimum action pH is 4–6 and optimum action temperature 25–75 °C. The pan bread formulation used in this work was based on that proposed by Pisesookbunterng and D’Appolonia (1983) and was the following: wheat flour (100 g), water (61.6 g), salt (2 g), compressed baker’s yeast (3 g), sugar (5 g), hydrogenated vegetable fat (3 g) and calcium propionate (0.2 g). SSL and maltogenic amylase (MALTO) were added to the formulation according to a 22 central composite rotational design (CCRD). The quantities added ranged from 0 to 0.50 g/100 g flour for SSL and from 0 to 0.04 g/100 g flour for MALTO. Eleven assays were conducted including four factorial points (22), four axial points (2 × 2) and three repetitions of the central point, as well as a Control sample without the addition of emulsifier or enzyme (Table 1). The production of pan breads followed the modified straight dough process. Batches of 3 kg wheat flour were made.