showing a statistically significant increase in PFS, resulting in

showing a statistically significant increase in PFS, resulting in a reduced risk of progression of about 30%. In the meta-analysis conducted by Valachis et al, improved PFS was statistically significant only in the subgroup of KU-60019 datasheet patients receiving taxanes (or anthracyclines in a part of the study RIBBON-1) in combination with Bevacizumab [33], this advantage not seem to get in combination with capecitabine, although the latter are grouped in heterogeneous populations with regard to the treatment line. In the meta-analysis conducted by Lee et al, with populations more correctly grouped by line of treatment rather than medication, the benefit of

the addition of Bevacizumab in PFS is restricted to first-line treatment [32]. Moreover, this analysis shows check details a marginal but statistically significant benefit in overall survival in first line. At the last ESMO meeting, a meta-analysis of 530 elderly patients (older than 65 years) enrolled in the randomized trials ECOG 2100, AVADO and RIBBON-1, was presented [34]. Although that represent a subgroup analysis, even in these featured advanced breast cancer patients’ sample, bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy was associated with significantly improved PFS versus chemotherapy alone (HR 0.67, p = 0.0030). Hypertension was more frequent with the addition of bevacizumab,

as expected; besides, no differences according to age were found. Another relevant issue that emerges from our analysis is that the prior exposure to treatments containing taxanes does not affect the efficacy of bevacizumab (Table

4). Indeed, the meta-regression analysis for either PFS R406 in vitro or OS clearly indicates that no significant correlation exists between the efficacy of bevacizumab and taxanes pre-treatment (p = 0.96 and p = 0.45, respectively). This finding is consistent with the ECOG-2100 and AVADO previous release [14, 15], and with the recently presented meta-analysis of patients from studies ECOG-2100, AVADO and RIBBON-1, previously treated with taxanes (paclitaxel, docetaxel or paclitaxel protein-bound) [35]. This analysis included only 311 patients from the group of patients Forskolin treated with taxanes of the RIBBON-1 and AVADO who received bevacizumab 15 mg/kg. The addition of bevacizumab led to an improvement in PFS from 6.2 to 10.6 months (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.36-0.69). In line with the data of the single trials and our analysis, the authors conclude that patients pretreated with taxanes are good candidates for retreatment with bevacizumab and taxane [35]. With regard to serious adverse events, the main significant toxicity against the addition of bevacizumab was hypertension (Table 3); this represents a common finding in all disease setting when this monoclonal antibody is adopted. Our analysis shows that a weighted average of 4.5% difference between the control arm and patients undergoing bevacizumab was found, corresponding to 22 patients to be treated for one harmed (Table 3).

It is improbable that accumulation of mannitol by R tropici CIAT

It is improbable that accumulation of mannitol by R tropici CIAT 899 conferred it a higher halotolerance, as mannitol was also accumulated by the less salt-tolerant strains. Other salt-induced responses, as modifications in the pattern of extracellular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides might be involved [3]. Upon transposon mutagenesis, Nogales et al [27] identified eight gene loci required for adaptation of R tropici CIAT 899 to high salinity. These included genes involved in regulation of gene expression, genes related to synthesis, assembly, and maturation of proteins, and genes related with

cellular buildup and maintenance. To date, three different enzymatic pathways have been described for trehalose synthesis in rhizobia (OtsAB, TreS and TreYZ; APR-246 mw [40]). The most common two-step OtsAB pathway catalyzes the synthesis of trehalose from UDP-glucose and glucose 6-phosphate. Trehalose synthase (TreS) HKI-272 cost catalyzes the reversible conversion of maltose and trehalose. Finally, the two-step TreYZ pathway acts in the production of trehalose from a linear maltodextrin (e.g., glycogen) [32]. In this work, we showed the presence of otsA within the genome of the four Rhizobium analyzed strains, suggesting that trehalose synthesis in these strains occurs at least via OtsAB. Synthesis of trehalose from maltooligosaccharides

in R. tropici CIAT 899 was earlier reported [41], although TreY activity could not be detected [40]. Interestingly,

the phylogenetic position of OtsA from R. gallicum bv phaseoli 8a3 and R. etli 12a3 was not consistent with the 16S rDNA-based tree, suggesting the existence of lateral transfer events. RAS p21 protein activator 1 Avonce et al. [32] also found inconsistencies in the topology of a proteobacterial selleck inhibitor OtsA-based tree, and suggested to be caused by either lateral gene transfer or differential loss of paralogs. Cyclic (1→2)-β-glucans have a role in hyposmotic adaptation of the legume symbiont rhizobiaceae [8]. In R. tropici CIAT 899 (and probably R. gallicum bv. phaseoli 8a3) cells grown at low salinity, the cyclic β-glucan was co-extracted with the cytoplasmic compatible solute pool, suggesting that high amounts of beta glucan were present in the periplasm.. As trehalose, cyclic (1→2)-β-glucans are synthesized from UDP-glucose [8]. We found that mannitol and galactose were substrates for both trehalose and the β-glucan of R. tropici CIAT 899. In contrast, mannose was a substrate for the β-glucan but not for trehalose.. From the above data, we conclude that R. tropici CIAT 899 can convert mannitol and galactose into UDP-glucose and glucose-6-phosphate, the two trehalose precursors, but it cannot transform mannose into glucose-6-phosphate. In E. coli and other bacteria, galactose degradation pathway I (Leloir pathway) can yield both UDP-glucose and glucose-6-phosphate [42]. Thus, a similar route might be operating in R. tropici CIAT 899.

There are some narrow gaps in the GaN nanowall especially at the

There are some narrow gaps in the GaN nanowall especially at the bottom part, as shown in Figure 5a. As growth continues, these gaps tend to disappear as indicated by blue circles. It seems that the GaN nanowall evolves from the coalescence of nanocolumns. Coalescence of closely spaced GaN nanowires this website has been

reported [24, 25]. In addition, the evolution of ZnO nanowires to nanowall was directly click here observed on an Au-coated sapphire substrate as growth continues [26]. Electron diffraction patterns taken from the Si substrate, AlN/GaN multilayer, and GaN are presented in Figure 5b. The electron diffraction pattern of GaN was measured with an incident beam direction of [1–100]. From these results, it is indicated that the GaN nanowall grows along the C axis, vertically aligning with the GaN [0001]//Si [111] direction. Figure 5 GaN nanowall network grown with a N/Ga ratio of 400. (a) TEM image and (b) electron diffraction patterns. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra of the GaN network grown with various N/Ga ratios were

measured to investigate the influence of the N/Ga ratio on the optical quality of the GaN network, as shown in Figure 6. For the sample grown with a N/Ga ratio of 980, there is a dominant emission peak centered at 418 nm (2.97 eV) together with a weak peak at 363 nm. According to literature [27], 2-/3-, -/2-, and 0/- transition levels of gallium vacancy (V Ga) are 1.5, 1.0, and 0.5 eV above valence band, respectively. The energy difference of 2.97 eV between

the conduction band and 0/- transition level agrees well with the emission peak SAHA purchase centered at 418 nm. Therefore, considering that the GaN nanonetwork was grown in a nitrogen-rich condition and that the V Ga defect favors to form in this growth condition, the emission peak at 418 nm is attributed to V Ga. Figure 6 Photoluminescence spectra of GaN nanowall networks grown with different N/Ga ratios. With the decrease of the N/Ga ratio, the intensity of the emission peak centered at 363 nm increases fast and becomes dominant Montelukast Sodium for the samples grown with N/Ga ratios smaller than 800. Meanwhile, the violet emission at 418 nm decreases gradually with the N/Ga ratio and disappears for the samples grown with N/Ga ratios less than 400. Only the band edge emission at 363 nm with a FWHM of about 12.8 nm is observed in the spectra corresponding to N/Ga ratios of 400 and 300, indicating that GaN networks grown under these conditions are of high quality. Four ohmic contact Ti (20 nm)/Al (100 nm) electrodes were deposited by electron beam evaporation in the four corners of the 8 × 8 mm Si-doped GaN nanowall network sample grown with a N/Ga ratio of 400 to investigate its electronic properties. The thickness of the Si-doped GaN is 300 nm. The current–voltage curve was measured as shown in Figure 7.

Relative alignment of CNF in electrospun scaffolds can be quantit

Relative alignment of CNF in electrospun scaffolds can be quantitatively evaluated via FFT analysis. FFT was conducted using ImageJ software (NIH, Maryland, USA) [26] supported by an Oval Profile plug-in. Bright-field

microscopic images of cells in a grayscale 8-bit TIF format were initially cropped to 1,024 × 1,024 pixels and imported into the Oval Profile plug-in for detailed FFT analysis. Typically, the degree of alignment can be reflected by the height and overall shape of the peak. The principal angle of HEK 293T orientation can be represented by the position of the peak. Results and discussion Electrospinning The schematic of the NFES experimental setup is shown in Figure  1. Due to the near-field effect of reduced needle-to-collector distance at 500 μm, #Mdivi1 randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# the applied voltage was 0.8 kV, which corresponds to the electric field of 1.6 × 106 V/m. This was equivalent to the field strength of the reported NFES at 1.2 × 106 V/m [27]. The XY stage movement speed was set at 20 cm/s.

Controllability of the prescribed parallel and arc patterns of CNF is presented in Figure  2. Parallel arrays Tideglusib mouse of CNF with controlled 100-μm spacing were shown in Figure  2a, and the inset shows the diameter distribution with an average value at 722.26 nm. Controlled deposition of the prescribed grid patterns at a specified distance of 100 μm was shown in Figure  2b, and the inset shows that the average diameter of the CNF was 738.46 nm. Nanofiber-induced

gradient at incremental spacings of 20, 40, and 100 μm, respectively, was demonstrated in Figure  2c, and the average diameter of the CNF was 727.18 nm. These maskless, low-cost, and direct-write patterns can be easily fabricated and will be used to study cell-based research such as cell adhesion and spreading. In addition, Figure  2d demonstrates multiple arc shapes with an average diameter of 720.31 nm and separation increment of 100 μm. Above-average diameters can be well controlled in the range of 720.31 to 738.46 nm, and variation was less than 2.5%. This was a remarkable achievement even though the Org 27569 NFES parameters were kept the same. Moreover, scalability and preparation of well-ordered nanostructures having a length of up to several millimeters can be facily realized. Regardless of the intricacy of the pattern, the technique of balancing the speed of the XY stage and the electrospinning deposition rate was essential for continuous operation of the NFES process. Figure  2e presents the randomly distributed nanofibers deposited via conventional electrospinning, and Figure  2f shows the average fiber diameter with standard deviation for the prescribed patterns in Figure  2a,b,c,d,e. It is experimentally observed that NFES has average fiber diameters in the range of 720 to 738 nm irrespective of the prescribed patterns and spacings, while conventional electrospinning exhibits a smaller average fiber diameter of 431 nm.

Anal

Chem 2004,76(13):3856–3860 PubMedCrossRef 20 Cheliu

Anal

Chem 2004,76(13):3856–3860.PubMedCrossRef 20. Chelius D, Zhang T, Wang G, Shen RF: Global protein identification and quantification technology using two-dimensional liquid chromatography nanospray mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 2003,75(23):6658–6665.PubMedCrossRef selleck inhibitor 21. Wang W, Zhou H, Lin H, Roy S, Shaler TA, Hill LR, Norton S, Kumar P, Anderle M, Becker CH: Quantification of proteins and metabolites by mass buy JPH203 spectrometry without isotopic labeling or spiked standards. Anal Chem 2003,75(18):4818–4826.PubMedCrossRef 22. Old WM, Meyer-Arendt K, Aveline-Wolf L, Pierce KG, Mendoza A, Sevinsky JR, Resing KA, Ahn NG: Comparison of label-free methods for quantifying human proteins by shotgun proteomics. Mol Cell Proteomics 2005,4(10):1487–1502.PubMedCrossRef 23. Fang R, Elias DA, Monroe ME, Shen Y, McIntosh M, Wang P, Goddard CD, Callister SJ, Moore RJ, Gorby YA, et al.: Differential label-free

quantitative proteomic analysis of Shewanella oneidensis cultured under aerobic and suboxic conditions by accurate mass and time tag approach. Mol Cell Proteomics 2006,5(4):714–725.PubMed 24. Higgs RE, Knierman MD, Gelfanova V, Butler JP, Hale JE: Label-free LC-MS method for the identification of biomarkers. Methods Mol Biol 2008, 428:209–230.PubMedCrossRef Selleckchem Combretastatin A4 25. Florens L, Washburn MP, Raine JD, Anthony RM, Grainger M, Haynes JD, Moch JK, Muster N, Sacci JB, Tabb DL, et al.: A proteomic view of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle. Nature 2002,419(6906):520–526.PubMedCrossRef 26. Qu J, Jusko WJ, Straubinger RM: Utility of cleavable isotope-coded affinity-tagged reagents for quantification of low-copy proteins induced by methylprednisolone using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 2006,78(13):4543–4552.PubMedCrossRef 27. Qu J, Straubinger RM: Improved

sensitivity for quantification of proteins using triply charged cleavable isotope-coded affinity tag peptides. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2005,19(19):2857–2864.PubMedCrossRef 28. Wang selleckchem H, Straubinger RM, Aletta JM, Cao J, Duan X, Yu H, Qu J: Accurate localization and relative quantification of arginine methylation using nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled to electron transfer dissociation and orbitrap mass spectrometry. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2009,20(3):507–507.PubMedCrossRef 29. Duan X, Young R, Straubinger R, Page B, Cao J, Wang H, Yu H, Canty J, Qu J: A straightforward and highly efficient precipitation/on-pellet digestion procedure coupled to long gradient nano-LC separation and Oribtrap mass spectrometry for the label-free expression profiling of swine heart mitochondria proteome. J Proteome Res 2009,8(6):2838–2850.PubMedCrossRef 30.

Vertical yellow lines represent the positions of polymorphic site

Vertical yellow lines represent the positions of polymorphic sites, the green line KU55933 mw depicts the position of the point mutation that is responsible for Rif resistance in J99-R3. Numbers below the panel: position relative to the Rif resistance point mutation, negative values indicate upstream nucleotides. The rows between 26695 and J99-R3 depict 30 sequences randomly selected from 92 clones

sequenced for the wt, and all 28 uvrC clones analyzed for import length. Any fragment surrounded by two sites identical to the donor is shown in red, any fragment surrounded by two sites identical to the Regorafenib recipient is shown in blue, and the remainder of the sequence is in white. Consequently, each sequence is shown as a mosaic of colors, where blue indicates DNA from the recipient, red DNA from the donor, and white DNA of unresolved origin. There was no significant change of the import length in the uvrA, uvrB, and ΔuvrD mutants. Strikingly, the inactivation of uvrC had a strong and highly significant effect on the length of imports of donor DNA into the recipient H. pylori genome (Figure 3;

Table 1). Indeed, the MLE of the imports increased more than 2-fold in the uvrC mutant compared to the wild type strain 26695 (3766 bp vs. 1681 bp, respectively). A functional complementation of this mutant restored this phenotype to wild type values, confirming that the generation of long imports was due to the absence of uvrC. None of www.selleckchem.com/products/empagliflozin-bi10773.html L-NAME HCl the four mutants showed a significant change in the frequency of ISR (Table 1). Table 1 Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of the mean length of donor DNA imports in the  rpoB  gene and number of clones with ISR after natural transformation of  H. pylori  26695 wild type strain and isogenic NER-deficient mutants     Length of import

Isolates with ISR Dataset Isolates MLE (bp) BF Number BF 26695 wt 95 1681   9    uvrA  26 2451 0.31 0 0.35  uvrB  24 2887 1.22 2 0.15  uvrC  28 3766 49.04 1 0.17  uvrC  comp 35 1781 0.12 7 0.78 Δ  uvrD  38 2155 0.16 6 0.33 Very strongly significant results (Bayes Factor (BF) >30) are marked in bold. Discussion The nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a mechanism by which DNA lesions causing distortions of the helical structure (“bulky lesions”, induced by a variety of chemical agents and ultraviolet light) can be repaired. In E. coli, NER also acts on non-bulky lesions such as oxidized or methylated bases, suggesting overlapping activities of the BER and NER systems for some substrates [27, 28]. The H. pylori genome contains orthologs of all four NER genes, uvrA-D (Additional file 3: Figure S3), however the function of most of these genes, and their involvement in the unusual genetic variability of this pathogen were poorly characterized. Our data show that inactivation of each of the four H. pylori NER genes strongly increased UV sensitivity, confirming that they are indeed functional homologs of the E. coli NER genes [29, 30]. Mutation rates Inactivation of H.

Thus, the putative ORFs of the

Thus, the CYC202 mouse putative ORFs of the full-length cadF (-like) gene from the 17 C. Table 4 Nucleotide (upper right) and deduced amino acid (lower left) this website sequence similarities (%) of full-length CLA0749 in C. lari 300 100.0 99.5   99.7 89.4 90.0 90.0 89.4 Alisertib cost 89.4 85.5 90.0 85.5 85.5 85.4 85.5 85.5 100.0 61.7 61.6 61.8 62.5 4 C. lari 84C-1 99.5 100.0 99.5   89.1 89.7 89.7 89.1 89.4 85.2 89.7 85.2 85.2 85.1 85.2 85.2 99.7 62.2 62.1 61.6 62.3 5 UPTC 99 92.1 92.1 92.1 92.1   98.0 98.0 98.4 98.9 88.6 95.3

88.6 88.6 88.5 88.6 88.6 89.4 62.4 62.2 63.3 64.1 6 UPTC NCTC12892 93.0 93.0 93.0 93.0 99.1   100.0 97.7 97.8 89.4 95.1 89.1 89.1 89.2 89.4 89.4 90.0 61.8 61.6 63.1 64.1 7 UPTC NCTC12893 92.6 92.6 92.6 92.6 98.6 99.6   97.7 Cobimetinib 97.8 89.4 95.1 89.1 89.1 89.2 89.4 89.4 90.0 61.8 61.6 63.1 64.1 8 UPTC NCTC12894 92.5 92.5 92.5 92.5 98.1 99.1 98.6   98.9 88.2 95.0 88.2 88.2 88.0 88.2 88.2 89.4 61.6 61.4 62.8 63.4 9 UPTC NCTC12895 93.0 93.0 93.0 93.0 99.1 100.0 99.6 99.1   88.3 95.5 88.3 88.3 88.2 88.3 88.3 89.4 62.1 61.9 63.0 63.5 10 UPTC NCTC12896 87.4 87.4 87.4 87.4 90.2 90.2 89.8 89.7 90.2   87.7 99.1 99.1 99.8 100.0 99.8 85.5 63.4 62.9 63.2 64.4 11 UPTC CF89-12 92.5 92.5 92.5 92.5 96.7 97.7 97.2 97.2 97.7 88.8   87.7 87.7 87.5 87.7 87.7 90.0 63.0 63.7 63.8 64.0 12 UPTC A1 87.9 87.9 87.9 87.9 90.7 90.7 90.2 90.2 90.7 98.6 89.3   100.0 98.9 99.1 98.9 85.5 63.5 63.1 63.2 64.6 13 UPTC A2 87.9 87.9 87.9 87.9 90.7 90.7 90.2 90.2 90.7 98.6 89.3 100.0   98.9 99.1 98.9 85.5 63.5 63.1 63.2 64.6 14 UPTC A3 86.9 86.9 86.9 86.9 89.7 89.7 89.3 89.2 89.7 99.5 88.3 98.1 98.1   99.8 99.7 85.4 63.2 62.8 63.0 64.3 15 UPTC 89049 87.4 87.4 87.4 87.4 90.2 90.2 89.8 89.7 90.2 100.0 88.8 98.6 98.6 99.5   99.8 85.5 63.4 62.9 63.2 64.4 16 UPTC 92251 87.4 87.4 87.4 87.4 90.2 90.2 89.8 89.7 90.2 99.5 88.8 98.1 98.1 99.1 99.5   85.5 63.2 62.8 63.4 64.3 17 C.

2009; Aveskamp et al 2010; Chaverri et al 2011; Schubert et al

2009; Aveskamp et al. 2010; Chaverri et al. 2011; Schubert et al. 2007). Recovering more OTUs in the wood of nursery plants than in the wood of adult plants (Fig. 1b) was not expected because the diversity of endophytes has been shown to increase with plant age (McCutcheon et al. 1993; Zabalgogeazcoa 2008). However, this fact can be explained by the sampling bias mentioned in the Materials and methods section: compared to nursery plants, the isolation of fungi from the wood of adult plants was likely to be biased toward

the repeated recovery of the same species, since a single sample of wood was more likely to be completely occupied by the same fungal species. The diversity of fungi isolated MDV3100 mw from the wood of 180 grapevine plants was nevertheless unexpectedly high for each of the plant types analyzed (Simpson index ≥0.8, Fig. 1c), more than two times higher than the one found to be associated not only with wood, but also with shoots

and leaves of several cultivars of V. vinifera at different ages in the whole of the area surrounding Madrid, Spain (Gonzáles and Tello 2010). These divergent results may partially be explained by the different locations of the experiments, but are more likely related to the methodology used to isolate the fungi from the plants and to the sampling effort (Hyde and Soytong 2008). Species accumulation curves of each plant type (Fig. 2) Selleckchem INCB018424 also suggest that the cultivable part of the fungal community associated with the wood of grapevine in a single vineyard plot or with nursery plants is still far from completely sampled. Consequently, the diversity of fungal endophytes that can associate with V. vinifera remains probably largely CHIR98014 purchase unknown. When comparing asymptomatic and esca-symptomatic plants, the incidence and Gemcitabine mouse abundance of esca-related fungi were high independently of the plant type, and adult plants, diseased or not, carried the same fungal parasitic load (Figs. 3, 4). We observed no significant difference in

the systematic structure of the mycota associated with asymptomatic and esca-symptomatic plants, this at different systematic ranks (Fig. 5). Finding the same taxa in both diseased and healthy plants also suggests that they are part of the normal mycota associated with adult V. vinifera plants (Frias-Lopez et al. 2002; Toledo-Hernández et al. 2008). If the group of generally accepted, esca-associated fungi were indeed latent pathogens, the emergence of symptoms of the disease would be the consequence of a shift in species abundance in favor of pathogenic species, leading to the typical discoloration of the leaves associated with esca (Surico et al. 2006). Our results suggest that the esca-associated fungi are probably not pathogens, but more likely either true endophytes sensu Mostert et al. (2000) or latent saprobes sensu Promputtha et al.

We previously proved that this approach efficiently enriches tumo

We previously proved that this approach efficiently enriches tumorigenic cells in vitro[41–44]. Given that this strategy did not rely on any prospective cell separation based on putative CSC-markers, it allowed us to overcome the possible bias of selecting cell populations based on the presence of transiently expressed antigens. The availability of exponentially growing melanospheres allowed us to obtain their deep in vitro validation and develop preclinical therapeutic approaches to target both the more tumorigenic

and bulk tumor cell populations in vitro and in vivo. Materials and methods Ethics statement Tumor samples were obtained in accordance with consent procedures approved by the Internal Review Board of Sant’ Andrea Hospital, University PKC412 ‘La Sapienza’ , Rome, Italy. All patients signed an informed consent form. According to the Legislative Decree 116/92 which has implemented in Italy the European Directive 86/609/EEC on laboratory animal protection, the research protocol “Analysis of effectiveness and tolerability of anti-tumor therapeutic agents in mice carrying

cancer stem cell-derived tumors” (Principal Investigator ARRY-162 cost Dr. Adriana Eramo) has been approved by the Service for Biotechnology and Animal Welfare of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità and authorized by the Italian Ministry of Health (Decree n° 217/2010-B). The animals used in the above mentioned research protocol have been housed and treated according to Legislative Decree 116/92 guidelines, and animal welfare was routinely checked by veterinarians from the Service for Biotechnology

and Animal Welfare. Isolation and culture of melanospheres and obtainment of differentiated progeny Tumor samples were obtained in accordance with consent procedures approved by the Internal Review Board of Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, S. Andrea Hospital, University La Sapienza, Rome. Surgical specimens were dissociated and recovered ioxilan cells cultured in serum-free medium as previously described [41, 42]. Briefly, surgicalspecimens were washed several times and left over night in DMEM:F-12 medium selleck supplemented with high doses of Penicillin/Streptomycin and Amphotericin B in order to avoid contamination. Tissue dissociation was carried out by enzymatic digestion (1.5 mg/ml collagenase II, Gibco-Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA and 20 μg DNAse I, Roche, Mannheim, Germany) for 2 hours at 37°C. Recovered cells were cultured in serum-free medium containing 50 μg/ml insulin, 100 μg/ml apo-transferrin, 10 μg/ml putrescine, 0.03 μM sodium selenite, 2 μM progesterone, 0.6% glucose, 5 mM hepes, 0.1% sodium bicarbonate, 0.4% BSA, glutamine and antibiotics, dissolved in DMEM-F12 medium (Gibco-Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) and supplemented with 20 ng/ml EGF and 10 ng/ml bFGF.

CrossRef 22 Cao X, Li X, Gao X, Yu W, Liu X, Zhang Y, Chen L, Ch

CrossRef 22. Cao X, Li X, Gao X, Yu W, Liu X, Zhang Y, Chen L, Cheng X: Forming-free colossal resistive switching effect in selleck rare-earth-oxide Gd 2 O 3 films for memristor applications. Appl PS 341 Phys Lett 2009, 106:073723. 23. Kinoshita K, Tamura T, Aoki

M, Sugiyama Y, Tanaka H: Bias polarity dependent data retention of resistive random access memory consisting of binary transition metal oxide. Appl Phys Lett 2006, 89:03509.CrossRef 24. Janousch M, Meijer GI, Staub U, Delley B, Karg SF, Andreasson BP: Role of oxygen vacancies in Cr-doped SrTiO 3 for resistance-change memory. Adv Mater 2007, 19:2232.CrossRef 25. Panda D, Dhar A, Ray SK: Nonvolatile and unipolar resistive switching characteristics of pulsed laser ablated NiO films. Appl Phys Lett 2011, 108:104513. 26. Lin CY, Wang SY, Lee DY, Tseng TY: Electrical properties and fatigue behaviors

of ZrO 2 resistive switching thin films. J Electrochem Soc 2008, 155:H615-H619.CrossRef 27. Lin CY, Wang SY, Lee DY, Tseng TY: Ti-induced recovery phenomenon of resistive switching in ZrO 2 thin films. J Electrochem Soc 2010, 157:G167-G169. 28. Esch F, Fabris S, Zhou L, Montini T, Africh C, Fornasiero Dibutyryl-cAMP supplier P, Comelli G, Rosei R: Electron localization determines defect formation on ceria substrates. Science 2005, 309:752–755.CrossRef 29. Chen MC, Chang TC, Huang SY, Chen SC, Hu CW, Tsai CT, Sze M: Bipolar resistive switching characteristics of transparent indium gallium zinc oxide resistive random access memory. Electrochem Solid State Lett 2010, 13:H191-H193.CrossRef 30. Chang WY, Ho YT, Hsu TC, Chen F, Tsai MJ, Wu TB: Influence of crystalline constituent on resistive switching properties of TiO 2 memory films. Eletrochem Soild-State Lett

2009, 12:H135-H137.CrossRef 31. Liu Q, Guan W, Long S, Jia R, Liu M, Chen J: Resistive switching memory effect of ZrO 2 films with Zr + implanted. J Appl Phys 2008, 92:012117. 32. Guan W, Long S, Liu Q, Liu M, Wang W: Nonpolar non-volatile resistive switching in Cu doped ZrO 2 . IEEE Trans Elec Lett 2008, 29:434–437.CrossRef 33. Liu Q, Long S, Wang W, Zuo Q, Zhang S, Chen J, Liu M: Improvement of resistive Bacterial neuraminidase switching properties in ZrO 2 -based RRAM with implanted Ti ions. IEEE Trans Elec Lett 2009, 30:1335–1337.CrossRef 34. Long S, Cagli C, Lelmini D, Liu M, Sune J: Analysis and modeling of resistive switching characteristics. J Appl Phys 2012, 111:074508.CrossRef 35. Long S, Cagli C, Lelmini D, Liu M, Sune J: Reset statistics of NiO-based resistive switching memory. IEEE Trans Elec Lett 2011, 32:1570–1572.CrossRef 36. Long S, Cagli C, Lelmini D, Liu M, Sune J: A model for the set statistics of RRAM inspired in the percolation model of oxide breakdown. IEEE Trans Elec Lett 2013, 34:999–1001.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions The manuscript was written through the contributions of all authors, MI, CYH, DP, CJH, TLT, JHJ, CAL, UC, AMR, EA, IT, MYN, and TYT.