“The conduction process as well as the unipolar resistive switching behavior of Au/HfO2/TiN metal-insulator-metal structures were investigated for future nonvolatile memory applications. With current-voltage measurements performed at different temperatures (200-400 K), the Poole-Frenkel effect as conduction process was identified. In particular, we extracted a trap energy level at phi(t) = 0.35 +/- 0.05 eV below the HfO2 conduction band to find more which a microscopic origin is tentatively assigned. From current-voltage measurements of Au/HfO2/TiN structures, low-power (as low as 120 mu W)resistive switching was observed. The required forming process is shown to be an energy-induced
phenomenon. The characteristics include electric
pulse-induced resistive switching by applying pulses up to 100 mu s and a retention time upon continuous nondestructive readout of more than 10(4) s. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3139282]“
“The pediatric epidural is an accepted method of advanced analgesia selleck screening library in children. Newer techniques have now superseded pediatric epidural analgesia (PEA), being as effective and safer, especially with the advances in ultrasonography. PEA is, however, still an important technique to master and employ, and it may be that the indications for this mode of analgesia have now become more defined.”
“Predicting the environmental multimedia fate is an essential step in the process of assessing the human exposure and health impacts of chemicals released into the environment. Multimedia fate models have been widely applied to calculate the fate and distribution of chemicals in the environment, which can serve as input to a human exposure model. In this study, a grid based multimedia fugacity model
at regional this website scale was developed together with a case study modeling the fate and transfer of Benzo[alpha]pyrene (BaP) in Bohai coastal region, China. Based on the estimated emission and in-site survey in 2008, the BaP concentrations in air, vegetation, soil, fresh water, fresh water sediment and coastal water as well as the transfer fluxes were derived under the steady-state assumption. The model results were validated through comparison between the measured and modeled concentrations of BaP. The model results indicated that the predicted concentrations of BaP in air, fresh water, soil and sediment generally agreed with field observations. Model predictions suggest that soil was the dominant sink of BaP in terrestrial systems. Flow from air to soil, vegetation and costal water were three major pathways of BaP inter-media transport processes. Most of the BaP entering the sea was transferred by airflow, which was also the crucial driving force in the spatial distribution processes of BaP. The Yellow River, Liaohe River and Daliao River played an important role in the spatial transformation processes of BaP.