“The conduction process as well as the unipolar resistive

“The conduction process as well as the unipolar resistive switching behavior of Au/HfO2/TiN metal-insulator-metal structures were investigated for future nonvolatile memory applications. With current-voltage measurements performed at different temperatures (200-400 K), the Poole-Frenkel effect as conduction process was identified. In particular, we extracted a trap energy level at phi(t) = 0.35 +/- 0.05 eV below the HfO2 conduction band to find more which a microscopic origin is tentatively assigned. From current-voltage measurements of Au/HfO2/TiN structures, low-power (as low as 120 mu W)resistive switching was observed. The required forming process is shown to be an energy-induced

phenomenon. The characteristics include electric

pulse-induced resistive switching by applying pulses up to 100 mu s and a retention time upon continuous nondestructive readout of more than 10(4) s. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3139282]“
“The pediatric epidural is an accepted method of advanced analgesia selleck screening library in children. Newer techniques have now superseded pediatric epidural analgesia (PEA), being as effective and safer, especially with the advances in ultrasonography. PEA is, however, still an important technique to master and employ, and it may be that the indications for this mode of analgesia have now become more defined.”
“Predicting the environmental multimedia fate is an essential step in the process of assessing the human exposure and health impacts of chemicals released into the environment. Multimedia fate models have been widely applied to calculate the fate and distribution of chemicals in the environment, which can serve as input to a human exposure model. In this study, a grid based multimedia fugacity model

at regional this website scale was developed together with a case study modeling the fate and transfer of Benzo[alpha]pyrene (BaP) in Bohai coastal region, China. Based on the estimated emission and in-site survey in 2008, the BaP concentrations in air, vegetation, soil, fresh water, fresh water sediment and coastal water as well as the transfer fluxes were derived under the steady-state assumption. The model results were validated through comparison between the measured and modeled concentrations of BaP. The model results indicated that the predicted concentrations of BaP in air, fresh water, soil and sediment generally agreed with field observations. Model predictions suggest that soil was the dominant sink of BaP in terrestrial systems. Flow from air to soil, vegetation and costal water were three major pathways of BaP inter-media transport processes. Most of the BaP entering the sea was transferred by airflow, which was also the crucial driving force in the spatial distribution processes of BaP. The Yellow River, Liaohe River and Daliao River played an important role in the spatial transformation processes of BaP.

We discuss the

occurring discrepancy between fit and meas

We discuss the

occurring discrepancy between fit and measured data and buy GW3965 show that it gives hints about particular material features and the reliability of the extracted parameters. We finally point out the possibility of determining L(diff) in small grains. This model thus allows more realistic GB situations to be investigated. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3462447]“
“The pyrolysis and flammability of phosphonium-modified layered silicate epoxy resin nanocomposites (EP/LS) were evaluated when LS was combined with two flame retardants, melamine borate (MB) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP), that also act via a surface protection layer. Thermogravimetry (TG), TG coupled with Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (TG-FTIR), oxygen index (LOI), UL 94 burning chamber (UL 94) and cone calorimeter were used. The glassy coating because of 10 wt % MB during combustion showed effects in the cone calorimeter test similar to nanodispersed LS, and somewhat better flame retardancy in flammability tests, such as LOI and UL 94. Adding APP to EP resulted

in intumescent systems. The fire retardancy was particularly convincing when 15 wt % APP was used, especially for low external heat flux, and thus, also inflammability tests click here like LOT and UL 94. V0 classification is achieved when 15 wt % APP is used in EP. The flame retardancy efficiency of selleck products the protection layers formed does not increase linearly with the MB and APP concentrations used. The combination of LS with MB or APP shows antagonism; thus the performance of the combination of LS with MB or APP, respectively, was disappointing. No optimization of the carbonaceous-inorganic surface layer occurred for LS-MB. Combining LS with APP inhibited the intumescence, most probably through an increase in viscosity clearly above the value needed

for intumescent behavior. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 1134-1143, 2010″
“Glibenclamide (GL)-loaded microcapsules (MC) and transdermal patches (TDP) were formulated and in vitro and in vivo parameters compared to find out the best route of drug administration. The formulation TDP1 having a drug-polymer ratio 1:1 showed comparatively higher GL release and better permeation across mice skin (p < 0.05). From the comparative study, it was concluded that the transdermal system of GL produced better improvement compared to oral microcapsule administration (p < 0.05). The transdermal system exhibited comparatively slow and continuous supply of GL at a desired rate to systemic circulation avoiding metabolism, which improved day-to-day glycemic control in diabetic subjects. Transdermal system of GL exhibited better control of hyperglycemia and prolonged plasma half-life by transdermal systems (9.6 +/- 1.2 h) in comparison with oral microcapsule (5.84 +/- 2.

In the human gastric adenocarcinomas and in the cancer cell lines

In the human gastric adenocarcinomas and in the cancer cell lines, the expressions of ABCB1, ABCG2, and CD133 increased with the increases in the malignancy grades of the gastric cancers. In the human gastric adenocarcinomas, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma expressed more ABCB1, ABCG2, and CD133 than well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. In addition, the expressions of ABCB1 and CD133 were higher in the diffuse type than in the intestinal

type of human gastric cancers. The undifferentiated cell line HGC-27 expressed more putative CSC markers than the moderately-poorly differentiated cell line SGC-7901. Similar results Dihydrotestosterone nmr were observed in the xenotransplant tumors that arose from the 3 gastric cancer cell lines.

The expressions of the CSC markers ABCB1, ABCG2, and CD133 differed in the gastric cancers with various degrees of differentiation, with poorly differentiated gastric cancer expressing relatively more CSC markers.”
“Activation of coagulation pathways results in the formation of hemostatic fibrin plugs. Under normal physiologic conditions fibrin clots are gradually,

albeit completely, degraded by a fibrinolytic enzyme system to ensure proper wound healing and/or blood vessel patency. Yet in pathological situations, thrombi are not effectively removed, leading to chronic thrombosis. The 4EGI-1 molecular weight susceptibility of blood clots to enzymatic degradation depends on the structure and properties of fibrin fibers. Many factors have been suspected as culprits, including red blood cells (RBCs) that become transiently trapped within fibrin mesh. Here, the authors show that there is indeed a specific interaction between RBCs and fibrin-like fibers identified here as dense matted deposits (DMDs) by means of scanning electron microscopy Torin 2 inhibitor (SEM). It is emphasized that such interactions can be observed in ischemic stroke patients, but not from healthy subjects. However, DMD/RBC aggregates can be induced in normal blood by the additions of trivalent iron ions. The plausible mechanism of the enhanced fibrin-red blood cell interaction is based on the previously described iron-induced generation of hydroxyl radicals. These radicals cause,

in turn, non-enzymatic formation of fibrinogen aggregates remarkably resistant to fibrinolysis that are also similar to DMDs described in this paper. In conclusion, this relatively simple SEM analysis may become a convenient tool for diagnosing prothrombotic conditions associated with iron overload. It is suggested that future research on prevention and treatment of ischemic stroke and other thrombosis associated diseases should include testing of iron-chelating and hydroxyl radical-scavenging agents.”
“A Japanese multicenter prospective cohort study is currently being conducted on endoscopic resection (ER) for early gastric cancer (EGC) using a Web registry system developed to determine short-term and long-term outcomes based on the absolute and expanded indications.

The modification/erosion of a-C:H (a-C:D) films was monitored in

The modification/erosion of a-C:H (a-C:D) films was monitored in situ by ellipsometry in real time. By interpreting the ellipsometric information and combining it with measurements of the absolute D areal density changes in

the a-C:H (a-C:D) films by ion beam analysis as a function of D (H) atom fluence, we are able to distinguish three sequential stages of D interaction with hard a-C:H films. The first stage is replacement of bonded hydrogen by deuterium up to an areal density of similar to 5 X 10(15) D cm(-2) to a depth of similar to 1.4 nm from the surface. This phase is complete after a deuterium fluence of approximate to 2 X 10(18) cm(-2). The effective cross section for isotopic exchange of https://www.selleckchem.com/products/nu7441.html H with D atoms for the a-C:H layer is found to be sigma=2.0 X 10(-18) cm(2), and is close to the cross section for H abstraction MEK inhibitor side effects from a carbon surface. This may indicate that H abstraction by D from the a-C:H surface is the rate limiting step for isotope exchange in this situation. Hydrogen replacement is followed by creation of additional C-D bonds in the near-surface region and increases the D areal density by about 2.5 X 10(15) D cm(-2). By ellipsometry this process can be observed as the

formation of a soft a-C:D layer on top of the hard a-C:H bulk film, with the soft layer extending about 1.4 nm Selleckchem OICR-9429 from the surface. This stage is complete after a deuterium fluence of about 2 X 10(19) cm(-2). Subsequently, steady-state erosion of the a-C:H film takes place. Here, a soft a-C:D layer with roughly constant thickness (similar to 1.4 nm) remains on the hard a-C:H substrate and is dynamically reformed as the underlying hard a-C:H film becomes thinner. A similar sequence of processes takes place at a substrate temperature of 650 K, albeit at a much faster rate. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3474988]“
“Functional MRI (fMRI) is often used for presurgical language lateralization. In the most common approach, a laterality index (LI) is calculated on the basis of

suprathreshold voxels. However, strong dependencies between LI and threshold can diminish the effectiveness of this technique; in this study we investigated an original methodology that is independent of threshold. We compared this threshold-independent method against the common threshold-dependent method in 14 patients with epilepsy who underwent Wada testing. in addition, clinical results from electrocortical language mapping and postoperative language findings were used to assess the validity of the fMRI lateralization method. The threshold-dependent methodology yielded ambiguous or incongruent lateralization outcomes in 4 of 14 patients in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and in 6 of 14 patients in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG).

Results: Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) was

Results: Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) was >0.80 for the BPI, the WOMAC and five of the eight SF-36 scales The pattern of associations of the two BPI scales with corresponding and non-corresponding scales of the WOMAC and SF-36 largely supported the construct validity of the BPI. The responsiveness indices for change from baseline to 1 year after THR ranged from 1.52 to 2.05 for the BPI scales, from 1.69 to 2.84 for the WOMAC scales, and from 0.25 (general

health) to 2.77 (bodily pain) for the SF-36 scales.

Conclusions: The BPI showed acceptable reliability, LY2835219 construct validity and responsiveness in patients with OA undergoing THR. BPI is short and therefore is easy to use and score, though the instrument offers few advantages over and duplicates scales of more comprehensive instruments, such as the WOMAC and SF-36.”
“Anthocyanin content of potato tubers is a trait that is attracting increasing attention as the potential nutritional benefits of this class of compound become apparent. However, our understanding of potato tuber anthocyanin accumulation is not complete.

The aim of this study was to use a potato microarray to investigate Blebbistatin Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor gene expression patterns associated with the accumulation of purple tuber anthocyanins. The advanced potato selections, CO97216-3P/PW and CO97227-2P/PW, developed by conventional breeding procedures, produced tubers with incomplete expression of tuber flesh pigmentation. This feature permits sampling pigmented and non-pigmented tissues from the same tubers, in essence, isolating the factors responsible for pigmentation from confounding genetic, environmental, and developmental effects. An examination of the transcriptome, coupled with metabolite data from purple pigmented sectors and from non-pigmented sectors of the same tuber, was undertaken to identify these genes whose expression correlated with elevated or altered polyphenol composition. Combined with a similar study MK5108 mw using eight other conventional cultivars and advanced selections with different pigmentation, it was possible to produce a refined list of only 27 genes that were

consistently differentially expressed in purple tuber tissues compared with white. Within this list are several new candidate genes that are likely to impact on tuber anthocyanin accumulation, including a gene encoding a novel single domain MYB transcription factor.”
“A novel pH-sensitive hydrogel system composed of itaconic acid (IA) and N-[3-(dimethylamino) propyl] methacrylamide was designed. This system was prepared by aqueous copolymerization with N,N-methylene bisacrylamide as a chemical crosslinker. The chemical structure of the hydrogels was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The microstructure and morphology of the hydrogels were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Under this electrical instability, amplitudes of the dipole and p

Under this electrical instability, amplitudes of the dipole and plasma oscillations increase in time due to the energy transfer from the drifting electrons. The instability arises when the electron drift velocity exceeds a critical value. Long relaxation times of the dipole excitations of the nanoparticle are favorable for development of the instability. We presented estimates, which demonstrate that the instability can be realized

in quantum dot-quantum well hybrid systems fabricated by contemporary semiconductor technologies. This instability can provide a new mechanism for generation of THz radiation. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3594682]“
“The objective of the present study was to estimate

Epacadostat mw genetic Pevonedistat order parameters for body weight at different ages in Arabi sheep using data collected from 1999 to 2009. Investigated traits consisted of birth weight (N = 2776), weaning weight (N = 2002) and weight at six months of age (N = 1885). The data were analyzed using restricted maximum likelihood analysis, by fitting univariate and multivariate animal models. All three weight traits were significantly influenced by birth year, sex and birth type. Age of dam only significantly affected birth weight. Log-likelihood ratio tests were conducted to determine the most suitable model for each growth Nirogacestat supplier trait in univariate analyses. Direct and total heritability estimates for birth weight, weaning weight and weight at six months of age (based on the best model) were 0.42 and 0.16 (model 4), 0.38 and 0.13 (model 4) and 0.14 and 0.14 (model 1), respectively. Estimation of maternal heritability for birth weight and weaning weight was 0.22 and 0.18, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among these traits were positive. Phenotypic correlations among traits were low to moderate. Genetic correlations among traits were positive and higher than the

corresponding phenotypic correlations. Weaning weight had a strong and significant correlation with weight at six months of age (0.99). We conclude that selection can be made in animals based on weaning weight instead of the present practice of selection based on weight at six months.”
“We study spin-wave excitations in multilayered magnetic nanograins composed of a stack of planes with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The inhomogeneity is modeled through the multiple repetition of a unit cell composed of layers of two different magnetic materials. The magnetic inhomogeneity along the central axis is found to split the frequency spectrum of magnetostatic excitations into two bands, while into the number of bands in the spectrum of exchange spin waves. We show that this difference in behavior is a result of the underlying long-and short-range interactions, respectively.

Typical behaviors of rabid skunks were entering a dog pen, appear

Typical behaviors of rabid skunks were entering a dog pen, appearing outside during daytime, and attacking pets.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Information on the epidemiology of rabies in skunks may be useful in planning and implementing local, state, and national rabies control and prevention campaigns. (J

Am Vet Med Assoc 2009;234:616-620)”
“In order to clarify the mechanisms of reproductive toxicity in a QSAR approach, the transcriptional signatures upon the 2 day exposure to the 28 days EC50 of a series of increasingly chlorinated aniline compounds and 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene were measured in Folsomia candida. In general, the transcriptional patterns DMXAA in vitro associated with all compounds revealed toxicity at FDA-approved Drug Library the cellular membranes and hence components of narcosis type I, but a principal component analysis revealed a deviating response by the pentachloroaniline and 2,3,5,6-tetrachloroaniline exposure. Moreover the expression of a subset of mainly biotransformation related genes showed a significant relationship with the logic,, which stresses the presence of narcosis type I. This was confirmed by GO term enrichment at the level of cellular component. Genes involved in the three phases of xenobiotic biotransformation exhibited strict compound specific transcription patterns, which may reflect biotransformation processes in F. candida. Additional

toxic mechanisms were especially observed for the 2,3,5,6-tetrachloroaniline, which possible works as an uncoupler or inhibitor of electron transport systems, which is revealed by the up-regulation of genes that encode different members of the electron transport chain. The aniline and 2,3,4-trichloroaniline exposure Selleck A 1331852 caused the induction of genes in the ROS defense system. Additional toxicity mechanisms were less clear, but they include the attack of microbial pathogens for the six other compounds and for 2,3,5,6-tetrachloroaniline an effect on mitochondrial protein folding. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Three unusual sesquineolignans

conchignans A (1), B (2), and C (3), together with two known compounds vanillin (4) and phloroglucinol (5), were isolated from the whole plants of Alpinia conchigera. Their structures were established by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques.”
“Objective-To compare values for tibial plateau angle (TPA) obtained in dogs by conventional and digital methods.

Design-Evaluation study.

Animals-37 dogs with stifle joint abnormalities.

Procedures-In all dogs, radiographs of both stifle joints were obtained by conventional and digital means. On conventionally acquired radiographs, TPA was measured with a protractor and fine-point pencil in accordance with standard guidelines. A software program was used to measure TPA on digitally acquired radiographs. Two viewers with different levels of experience performed all measurements 3 times.

Overall “”pass/fail”" performance and different skills were asses

Overall “”pass/fail”" performance and different skills were assessed. During the study time period (September 2009-November 2010) no HBB re-trainings were conducted, no local ownership was established, and no HBB action plans were implemented in the labor ward to facilitate transfer

and sustainability of performance in the delivery room at birth. Observational CAL-101 manufacturer data on neonatal management before (n=2745) and after (n=3116) the HBB training was collected in the delivery room by observing all births at the hospital during the same time period.

Results: The proportion of providers who “”passed”" the simulated “”routine care”" and “”neonatal resuscitation”" scenarios increased after HBB training; from 41

to 74% (p=0.016) and from 18 to 74% (p <= 0.0001) respectively. However, the number of babies being suctioned and/or ventilated at birth did not change, and the use of stimulation in the delivery room decreased after HBB training.

Conclusion: Birth attendants selleck chemicals in a rural hospital in Tanzania performed significantly better in simulated neonatal care and resuscitation seven months after one day of HBB training. This improvement did not transfer into clinical practice. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”

Procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are well known inflammatory markers. This study was designed to determine whether PCT and CRP are useful as early diagnostic markers for bacteremia in cancer patients with febrile neutropenia (FN) in the emergency department (ED).

Materials and Methods

In this retrospective study, 286 episodes of FN in the ED were consecutively included between June 2009 and August 2010. From medical records, clinical characteristics including PCT and CRP were extracted and analyzed.


Bacteremia was identified in 38 (13.3%) of the 286 episodes. The median values of PCT (2.8 ng/mL vs. 0.0 ng/mL, p=0.000) and CRP (15.9 mg/dL vs.

5.6 mg/dL, p=0.002) were significantly higher in the group with bacteremia compared to the group without bacteremia. In univariate analysis, elevated PCT (>0.5 ng/mL) and CRP (>10 mg/dL) as well as older age, hypotension, tachycardia, tachypnea, and high body temperature ARN-509 were significantly associated with bacteremia. On multivariate analysis, elevated PCT (>0.5 ng/mL) (odds ratio [OR], 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 9.2; p < 0.01) and tachypnea (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.4 to 8.5; p < 0.01) were independent early diagnostic markers for bacteremia in FN patients. The area under the curve of PCT was 74.8% (95% CI, 65.1 to 84.6%) and that of CRP was 65.5% (95% CI, 54.8 to 76.1%). With a PCT cut-off value of 0.5 ng/mL, sensitivity and specificity were 60.5% and 82.3%, respectively, while the sensitivity and specificity were 57.6% and 67.3%, respectively, with a CRP cutoff of 10 mg/dL.

A clinical decision should be based on a more comprehensive evalu

A clinical decision should be based on a more comprehensive evaluation of the patient’s current global health and on a more reliable prediction of future morbidity and mortality. After a careful review of available data about safety and efficacy of bariatric surgery in patients with class I obesity, this panel reached a consensus

https://www.selleckchem.com/products/GSK690693.html on ten clinical recommendations.”
“The present study explored the possible relationships between impulsivity, gender, and a peripheral serotonergic marker, the platelet serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT), in a group of 32 healthy subjects. The impulsivity was measured by means of the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, version 11 (BIS-11), a widely used self-report questionnaire, and the platelet SERT was evaluated by means of the specific binding of (3)H-paroxetine ((3)H-Par) to platelet membranes, according to standardized protocols. The results showed that women had a higher BIS-11 total score than men, and also higher scores of two factors of the same scale: the motor impulsivity and the cognitive complexity. The analysis of the correlations revealed that the density of the SERT proteins, as measured by the maximum binding capacity (B(max)) of (3)H-Par, was significantly and positively related selleck chemical to the cognitive complexity factor, but only in men. Men showed also a significant and negative correlation with

the dissociation constant, Kd, of ((3)H-Par) binding, and the motor impulsivity factor. These findings suggest that

women are generally more impulsive than men, but that the 5-HT system is more involved in the impulsivity of men than in that of women.”
“Three new labdane-derived diterpenes, dulcinodal (1), dulcinodiol (2), and scopadiol decanoate (3) were isolated from the aerial parts of Scoparia dulcis. The structures were determined by extensive NMR studies and comparison of their spectral Selonsertib purchase data with related compounds. (C) 2012 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“A new position statement from the International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders (IFSO) recommends that surgery be also considered for patients with class 1 obesity (BMI 30-35 kg/m(2)) with significant comorbidity, who have failed nonsurgical obesity treatments. These recommendations reflect the arbitrary nature of current BMI-based recommendations. However, it is essential that this new approach be carefully assessed with regard to outcomes, cost-effectiveness, and impact on access to care for those with more severe obesity.”
“Specific serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) have been described as “”better tolerated tricyclic antidepressants”" or as “”boosted”" selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Venlafaxine has become a therapeutic reference treatment for major depression.

Surgery was performed through thoracotomy in 10 cases, VATS-assis

Surgery was performed through thoracotomy in 10 cases, VATS-assisted approach in two cases and sternotomy in one case. Descriptions of the surgical anatomy confirmed mirror image of the anatomy in all cases and were consistent with the preoperative CT images. Preoperative diagnosis was discussed including

the role of 3-D reconstruction of CT for improving perioperative safety in this group of patients. In conclusion, lung cancer/SIT cases despite inversed but regular anatomy can be operated on radically as cases with normal anatomy with preservation of intraoperative security level.”
“To selleck screening library suppress charge injection from electrodes, direct fluorination using fluorine gas was used for linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) since it is one of the most effective methods of the polymer surface modification. Surface fluorination of the LLDPE plates was obtained as indicated by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. Remarkable suppression of charge injection by the surface fluorination was observed by space charge distribution measurements using the pressure wave propagation method. Comparing

with the remarkable bipolar charge distribution in bulk of the original LLDPE, there is less space charge in bulk and it mostly exists in the fluorinated surface layers. The possible mechanisms of the charge Selleckchem FK228 injection suppression are discussed, one of which, the effect of fluorination on the charge traps in surface layer was investigated by the thermally stimulated discharge technique. The results indicate that fluorination has charge traps in the surface layer remarkably deepened and charges captured in the deep traps can block or shield the further charge injection.”
“In recent years, exceptional progress has been observed in pharmacogenetics, i.e. investigations of inherited conditioning this website of the organism’s response to drugs or xenobiotics. On the other hand, modern molecular biology techniques have been implemented, making it possible to perform studies determining the involvement of genetic factors in differing

responses to agents employed in general anaesthesia. Unexpected and incorrect response of the organism to the administration of specific anaesthetics is most commonly associated with a genetic defect of the metabolic pathway of a given agent or its receptor. The majority of agents used in anaesthesia are metabolised in the liver by the cytochrome P450 superfamily enzymes (CYPs) and phase II drug-metabolising enzymes: glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), sulphotransferases (SULTs), UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and NAD(P) H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1). Propofol is presently widely used for gastrointestinal (GI) and several other procedures. Among genes associated with metabolism of the most commonly applied anaesthetics such as propofol and sevoflurane, the following ones can be mentioned: CYP2E1, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, GSTP1, UGT1A9, SULT1A1 and NQO1.