06∼1.15 g/mL) and high (1.17∼1.25
g/mL) density fractions. Virus in Erastin cell line low density fractions from culture supernatants has been shown to display greater specific infectivity than virus in high density fractions (43, 44). From these observations, and from analyses of HCV circulating in the sera of infected hosts, it has been proposed that low-density virus is associated with lipid and VLDL and/or LDL. We investigated the significance of lipid association with HCV particles and found that HCV particles have a higher cholesterol content than do the host-cell membranes, and that HCV-associated cholesterol plays a key role in virion maturation and infectivity (45). Lipid droplets have been considered to be storage organelles which are used as a source of neutral lipid for metabolism and membrane synthesis. LDs are composed of a core of triacylglycerol and cholesterol ester surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids, which in turn is bounded by a proteinaceous coat. There is now increasing evidence that LDs play a central role in the production of infectious HCV, and participate in virus assembly. Before a tissue culture Panobinostat in vivo system for virion production was available, heterologous expression systems were used to show that HCV Core is associated with the ER membranes or on the surface
of LDs (12, 13). Early studies of cells infected with HCV JFH-1 indicated that Core was detectable BCKDHA at the ER or the surface of LDs in association with the ER (46). Miyanari et al. have demonstrated that LDs are directly involved in the production of infectious HCV, and that Core recruits viral non-structural proteins and the replication complex to LD-associated membranes, suggesting that association between Core and LDs is a prerequisite at some stage of HCV morphogenesis (47) (Fig. 2). Another study has shown that disruption of the Core-LDs interaction correlates with a loss in virion production (48). Time–course analyses have revealed that LD loading
by Core coincides with release of infectious particles. As a current model for HCV morphogenesis, Core encapsidates the genome RNA in sites where ER cisternae are in contact with LDs, creating genome-containing particles which acquire viral envelope proteins. Virion assembly and release from the cells is sensitive both to inhibitors of microsomal transfer protein and to reduction in the abundance of ApoB and ApoE (49–52). These observations suggest that components of VLDL biosynthetic machinery are essential for HCV morphogenesis, and that assembly and release of infectious particles occur in concert with production of VLDL (Fig. 2). Little is known about the details of co-assembly of HCV virion and VLDL and a lot of questions remain unanswered.
5 mm circular craniectomy. TBI was inflicted by a 2 mm circular, flat pneumatic piston traveling at 3 m/s, penetrating 1.5 mm, for 150 ms (Amscien Instruments, Richmond, SAR245409 in vitro VA, USA with extensive modifications by H&R Machine, Capay, CA, USA). Target brain coordinates for the center of injury were 1.5 mm lateral, 2.3 mm posterior to the bregma point. After minor bleeding had ceased, the skin was clipped together and animals were monitored for recovery. Sham animals received all surgical procedures without piston
impact. As needed, animals were given rehydration therapy for the first 3 days. Brain leukocytes were harvested according to previously published methods . Briefly, following perfusion brain tissues were obtained and mechanically disassociated through a 100 μm cell strainer. Washed cells were treated with 400 U/mL DNase I (Sigma-Aldrich) and 0.5 mg/mL collagenase type I (Worthington) at 37°C for 30 min. Leukocytes were isolated by separation on a Percoll gradient (Amersham Biosciences). For PBL isolation, mononuclear cells were separated from peripheral blood using ficoll-hypaque (GE Healthcare). Fc
receptors were blocked with 10% rat serum (Sigma) and cells were stained with fluorescent antibodies. Leukocyte analysis used a combination of the following antibodies: anti-CD45 (clone Ly5) allophycocyanin (eBioscience), anti-CD11b (clone M1/70) PE (Invitrogen) or PE-Cy5 (eBioscience), anti-Ly6G (clone 1A8) PE-Cy7 (BD Biosciences), Quinapyramine F4/80 (clone BM8) FITC or PE-Cy5 (eBioscience), MHCII (clone M5/114.15.2) PE NU7441 supplier (eBioscience), CD86 (clone GL1) PE (eBioscience). SYTOX Blue (Invitrogen) was used to gate out dead cells. Cells were sorted on a FACSAria (BD Biosciences) and data were analyzed using FlowJo Software (Treestar). All data
represent mean ± SEM. Brains were perfused with saline followed by 3.7% formaldehyde. After a 2-h fixation, brains were incubated in 30% sucrose overnight and frozen in tissue-freezing medium (Sakura, Inc.). For H&E staining, brains were sectioned 10 μm thick onto glass slides, heat-dried, and stained (at least three animals per group were analyzed, five sections per animal). For F4/80 staining, 5 μm sections that were quenched for endogenous peroxidases and blocked with streptavidin and biotin (VectorLabs) were immunostained with an anti-F480 antibody (Clone BM8, eBioscience), followed by goat anti-rabbit biotinylated antibody and visualized using a Vectastain ABC elite kit (VectorLabs) (three animals per group and at least five sections per animal were analyzed). For immunofluorescent labeling of YFP and F4/80, a biotinylated goat anti-YFP antibody (Abcam) and streptavidin-HRP (Perkin Elmer) were used and amplified by fluoresceinated tyramide (Perkin Elmer).
39 Collectively, an anti-sense E7 also can inhibit the expression of both E6 and E7 proteins simultaneously and can completely block COX-2 production. We attempted to determine whether IL-32, when coupled with COX-2, would
Small molecule library in vivo function as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, exerting HPV-16 E7-mediated regulatory effects in cervical cancer cells. The significant induction of IL-32 and COX-2 promoter activities by HPV-16 E7 was inhibited by E7 knock-down in cervical cancer cells. As COX-2 is induced in response to an inflammatory factor40 and IL-32 also exerts immune/cancer effects,41 we identified the relationship between IL-32 and COX-2 induced by HPV-16 E7. As suggested by Figs 1 and 2(b), and also by Subbaramaiah and Dannenberg,22,24 the use of the COX-2 inhibitor NS398 results in lower expressions of IL-32 (RT-PCR and Western blot) and E7 genes (RT-PCR) (Fig. 3b). As shown in Figs 1 and 2(a), E7 expression is directly coupled to IL-32 expression. Hence, the results shown in Fig. 3 could also be interpreted as NS398 decreasing E7 expression for unknown reasons and therefore the expression of IL-32,
without COX-2 being involved. Taken together these results indicate that IL-32 expression levels were enhanced in COX-2-over-expressing SiHa and CaSki INCB024360 solubility dmso cells, and treatment with the COX-2 selective inhibitor blocks E7-mediated IL-32 stimulation. The E7-mediated production of PGE2 was also suppressed by NS398 in a dose-dependent fashion. These results demonstrate that IL-32 affects the regulation of COX-2 in response to HPV-16 E7 in cervical cancer cells. To determine the effects of IL-32 on the regulation of E7-mediated COX-2 and COX-2-derived PGE2 production, IL-32 was
over-expressed and knocked-down in SiHa and CaSki cells. IL-32 over-expression was shown to inhibit the activation of E7-mediated COX-2 and E7 expression in a feedback-based manner. Furthermore, PGE2 levels were reduced in culture media by IL-32 over-expression, whereas those levels were increased in the IL-32 knock-down cell supernatants. We confirmed that E7-mediated IL-32 activation is profoundly correlated with next the expression of other proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-18, in HPV-expressing cervical cancer cells, thereby indicating that they were induced by IL-32 over-expression, and down-regulated by IL-32 knock-down. It was previously demonstrated that HPV-16 E7 inhibits IL-18-induced IFN-γ production in human peripheral blood mononuclear and natural killer cells.10 Over-expression of IL-32 inhibited E7 oncogene expression, whereas IL-18 expression was enhanced. This suggests that the E7-mediated inhibition of IL-18 expression would be recovered via the suppression of E7, or that IL-18 could be directly induced by IL-32.
The precise mechanisms by which gut hormones regulate the inflammation remain to be determined. The data generated from the studies on 5-HT in gut inflammation suggest strongly that increased 5-HT released by luminal inflammatory stimuli can activate immune
cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and enteric nerves via specific 5-HT receptors, which can enhance the production of proinflammatory mediators via triggering activation of the NF-κB pathway and/or other possible proinflammatory signalling systems, and which subsequently can up-regulate the inflammatory response (Fig. 1). It will be interesting to see roles of specific 5-HT receptor subtype(s) in immune activation and generation of intestinal inflammation. Selleck Roxadustat The role of Cgs in inflammation
is not as clear at present, as it is with 5-HT; however, the available data suggest that it is an important and interesting area for further exploration. Cgs can interact with immune cells to increase or decrease in proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 (Fig. 2), depending Selleck AZD6244 upon the signals that initiate the inflammation, the site of inflammation and the type of peptide. It will be interesting to determine whether experimental modulation in the amount of Cgs has any effect on immune activation and the generation of inflammation in gut and in other parts of the body. In addition, it seems possible that 5-HT and Cgs systems can interact with
each other in the context of inflammation. Neuroendocrine secretory protein of Mr 55 000 (NESP55), a novel member of Cgs, has been identified recently as an endogenous antagonist of the serotonergic 5-HT1B receptor subtype . As alteration in the serotonergic system is considered to play an important role in inflammatory response, it is alluring to speculate that Cgs may contribute to the inflammatory mechanism by modulating the 5-HT response. These studies provide novel information on the role of gut hormones in immune signalling and regulation of gut inflammation. Despite being a challenging and complicated Ergoloid area to explore, recent studies on immunoendocrine interaction has generated new interest to elucidate the role of gut hormones in the inflammatory process and immune function. In addition to enhancing our understanding on the pathogenesis of inflammatory changes, these studies give new information on 5-HT and Cgs in the context of immunoendocrine interactions in gut and intestinal homeostasis. This is very important, due not only to the alteration in enteric endocrine cells functions observed in various GI inflammatory conditions but also in non-GI inflammatory disorders and functional GI disorders such as IBS.
Variant PD-1 antibody peptides with substituted amino acids at anchor motifs, apart from glycine (G), did not rank as high as M2:82–90 but still reached the top 5% of listed predicted epitopes from
M2–1 protein with substituted amino acid sequences on several prediction servers (Tables 1 and 2). Certain servers ruled out a number of variant peptides with substituted amino acids at anchor motifs as MHC class I-restricted epitopes (Table 2). Variant peptides with substituted amino acids at anchor motifs, except for glycine, in this research should be ranked as epitopes of the prediction outcome, but often are not (Table 1; Fig. 2). The variant peptides with substituted TCR contact residues were still at the top of the predicted list
of all servers as epitopes, the same as the original one, which is inconsistent with the experimental results for epitope identification (Tables 1 and 2; Figs 1 and 2). The same analysed results were obtained for the majority of servers to predict the original H-2Kb-restricted CD8 T-lymphocyte epitope, NS2:114–121, derived from NS2 protein of H1N1 A/WSN/33 virus and its variant epitopes, GQ and FG, until the most recent programme BioXGEM, which was integrated with interaction interfaces of the peptide–TCR, had been established (Tables 1 and 3; Figs 1 BI 6727 purchase and 2). FG variant peptide with the substituted TCR contact residue was not predicted to be the specific CD8 T-lymphocyte epitope by BioXGEM as indicated in the experimental result for epitope identification (Table 3; Fig. 2b). To evaluate the accuracy of scoring function on H2-Kb–peptide–TCR interactions, we simulate all H2-Kb–peptide–TCR crystal complexes as templates for epitope prediction. The experimental data for most of MHC-restricted peptides were collected from the IEDB database. Fifty-eight peptides have positive results whereas 66 peptides have negative results from both the MHC and TCR experimental records. We regard these peptides as standard positive and negative experimental Buspirone HCl sets for analysis to predict relevant CD8 T-lymphocyte epitopes. Each defined term of
scoring functions was analysed with the receiver operating characteristics curve (Fig. 5a). The scoring function integrates the interface of binding forces (Evdw + ESF), amino acid conservation (Econs) and template similarity (Esim). The Econs and Esim have similar trends in their receiver operating characteristics curve, which is better than the dissimilar one for Evdw + ESF. These results reveal that the conserved amino acid position and the similarity between template and candidate proteins are perhaps more constant than binding forces, in particular for the peptide–MHC interface (Fig. 5a). The scoring function has the more constant prediction rate on the binding of peptides to MHC class I molecules than that to the TCR interface alone as far as the difference of analysis curves is concerned (Fig. 5b).
Compliance was assessed by the dietitian every 4 weeks and 24 h urinary sodium excretion was measured at baseline and at 3 months. Both systolic and diastolic
blood pressure levels decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) in the intervention group compared with those in the control group. Seven of the 18 in the intervention group needed lower doses or fewer antihypertensive medications. The investigators noted that while there was no correlation between urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure at baseline, after 3 months there was a correlation (P < 0.0001, r = 0.626). The limitations of the study were: Small numbers in each group. This study provides satisfactory level III evidence that the use of a sodium-restricted diet, in combination with buy PF-6463922 antihypertensive medications, helps to lower blood pressure in kidney transplant recipients. A prospective study by Curtis et al.20 compared the effect of a sodium-restricted diet on hypertensive adult kidney transplant recipients taking cyclosporine with those taking azathioprine. Subjects were selected sequentially on the basis of hypertension and stable graft function and treatment with cyclosporine and prednisone. Azathioprine-treated subjects were selected to match each cyclosporine-treated subject. There were five females and 10 males
in each group. To study the effect of sodium on blood pressure, subjects in both groups were placed on a ‘normal salt diet’ (150 mmol/day sodium) diet for 3 days, followed by a dose of captopril, followed by 4 days on a low sodium (9 mmol/day), then a high sodium diet of 3.8 mmol per kilogram body weight MAPK Inhibitor Library per day for 3 days. The researchers found that while a sodium restriction significantly
lowered blood pressure in cyclosporine-treated patients (P < 0.01), it had no effect on azathioprine-treated patients. In contrast, captopril lowered blood pressure in azathioprine-treated patients (P < 0.01) but not in cyclosporine-treated patients. While a sodium restriction of 9 mmol/day is unfeasible and unrealistic in the long term, it allowed the researchers to clearly demonstrate the existence of a difference between patients treated with cyclosporine and those Methamphetamine treated with azathioprine with respect to the mechanisms underlying hypertension. The study provides level III evidence that a sodium-restricted diet is more likely to lower blood pressure in hypertensive kidney transplant recipients treated with cyclosporine than in those treated with azathioprine. In addition to the prospective studies described above, cross-sectional studies have also been conducted to examine the association between sodium intake and blood pressure in kidney transplant recipients.22,23 In these studies, no correlation was found between urinary sodium excretion (surrogate marker of sodium intake) and blood pressure. The limitations of these studies included: No sub-group analysis according to medications.
This second interface constitutes a privileged site where fetal antigen shedding into maternal blood occurs. It is unclear whether maternal effector T cells sense these antigens, and whether specific adjustments are necessary to ensure systemic tolerance. During the process of implantation, the decidua is populated by Stem Cells inhibitor a large variety of leucocytes, which account for > 40% of the total cellular content. The major leucocyte population is represented by a particular subset of CD56bright CD16neg non-cytotoxic NK cells (dNK). In the first trimester of pregnancy, dNK cells represent >70% of decidual leucocytes.[15-19] The dNK cell number is very high throughout
the first trimester and remains high through the second. However, it starts to see more decline from mid-gestation and reaches a normal endometrial number at term. Other immune cells are represented at much lower levels; human decidua contains 10% T cells, including CD8, CD4 and γδ T cells, as well as 20% monocytes/macrophages and 2% dendritic cells,[21-24] but B cells are
barely detectable. The total number of T cells varies through the course of pregnancy but can reach up to 80% at term. The majority of decidual CD8pos and CD4pos T cells show features of induced regulatory T (Treg) cells.[25-28] The cellular cross-talk between decidual stroma, immune cells and fetal trophoblast is orchestrated by hormones/cytokines/chemokines/growth factors, and is a prerequisite for the development of the placenta.[29-32] The high level of CD56bright maternal dNK cells within the implantation site click here further highlights their importance in the immunology of pregnancy, which is far from
being completely understood. The origin of dNK cells is not yet clear. They could be generated in situ from early progenitors/precursors, which differentiate/proliferate in an environment enriched in steroid hormones and cytokines/chemokines to give rise to the dNK cell population.[33-35] This theory is further supported by the presence of an immature population of NK cells in the uterus, even before conception. These uterine NK cells regulate the differentiation and decidualization of the endometrium and their number varies during the menstrual cycle due to the effect of elevated levels of interleukin-15 (IL-15).[36, 37] Similar to other lymphoid tissues, CD34pos precursors are present in the maternal decidua. These CD34pos progenitors are probably committed to the NK cell lineage as they express high levels of E4BP4 and Id2 transcription factors. They also express the common β chain receptor (CD122) and the IL-7 receptor α chain (CD127) but do not express stem cell markers (i.e. c-kit). Interactions with other decidual cells in a microenvironment enriched in IL-15 can easily drive the differentiation of these CD34pos progenitors into dNK cells.
Myc-tagged viral Pellino and Pellino3S were cloned into the vector pRSET A-His, expressed in Escherichia coli (BL21 cells) and purified using the His-bind purification kit (Qiagen). For the in vitro ubiquitination assay, recombinant Pellino protein (1 μg) was incubated with ubiquitin (1 μg), E1 (50 ng), UbcH13/Uev1a (400 ng) and protease inhibitor mix (EDTA free) in 5 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, containing MgCl2 (2 mM), ATP (2 mM) and NaCl (100 mM). Reactions were incubated at 37°C for 2 h and terminated by addition of SDS-PAGE sample buffer. Samples were then resolved by SDS-PAGE and analysed by immunoblotting using an anti-ubiquitin antibody
(Santa Cruz). Drosophila Schneider JQ1 2 (S2) cells were cultured in Schneider’s Insect Medium supplemented with 10% v/v fetal bovine serum, penicillin G (100 μg/mL) and streptomycin (100 μg/mL). Cells were maintained at 25°C without CO2 buffering. C-106 stimulation was performed on cells in serum-containing medium at 25°C. HEK293T cells and HEK 293-TLR4 cells (gift from Douglas Golenbock) and U373 cells were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% v/v fetal bovine serum, penicillin G (100 μg/mL) and streptomycin (100 μg/mL). G418 (0.5 mg/mL) was used as a selective agent for the stably transfected 293-TLR4 cells.
LPS see more stimulation was performed on cells in serum-containing medium at 37°C. Cells were seeded at 1.8×105 and 2×105/mL, respectively, in 96-well plates (200 μL/well) and 6-well plates (3 mL/well) and grown for 24 h to approximately 80% confluency. Cells were transfected using Lipofectamine (Invitrogen), with each well in a 6-well
and 96-well plate being transfected with 4 μg and 230 ng total Gefitinib in vitro DNA, respectively. For 96-well plate transfections, lysates were generated using Reporter Lysis Buffer (Sigma). Firefly activity and Renilla luciferase activities were assayed using luciferase substrate (Promega) and coelenterazine (0.1 μg/mL in PBS), respectively. Cells were seeded at 2×106/mL in 12-well plates and grown for 24 h. Transfection was then performed using the Calcium Phosphate Transfection kit (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. For each well, a total of 1 μg DNA was used. In total, 24 h post-transfection cells were washed twice in serum-free Schneider’s Medium, re-seeded in fresh medium and stimulated overnight with or without C-106 ligand. Lysates were generated with Reporter Lysis Buffer (Promega) and assayed for firefly luciferase activity. β-Galactosidase activity was assayed by incubating cell lysate with o-nitrophenyl-β-galactoside (1 mg/mL) at 37°C for 15 min before reading absorbance at 420 nm. Briefly, 24 h post-transfection, cells were lysed in 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5) containing 150 mM NaCl, 0.5% v/v Igepal, 50 mM NaF, 1 mM Na3VO4, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, protease inhibitor mixture (25 μg/mL leupeptin, 25 μg/mL aprotinin, 1 mM benzamidine and 10 μg/mL trypsin inhibitor).
Although, as described by the authors and in our own analyses, there are rare populations of CD16+CD8α− NK cells in the peripheral blood of chimpanzees, the data we present here indicate that these populations are often likely to be contaminated by phenotypically BAY 57-1293 ic50 and functionally defined CD16+ mDCs. Fresh chimpanzee blood samples were obtained from captive chimpanzees housed at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (supported by NIH grant RR000165). These studies were approved by the
Institutional Animal care and Use Committee of Emory University. The YNPRC is fully accredited by the American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care. Cryopreserved samples were analyzed from chimpanzees
originally housed at the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates, New York University, the Coulston Foundation, Alamogordo, New Mexico in biosafety level 2 facilities in accordance with institutional guidelines and Animal Welfare Act guidelines. The protocol was approved by the University of Alabama at Birmingham Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Chimpanzee PBMCs were isolated from EDTA-treated venous blood by density gradient centrifugation over LSM (MP Biomedicals, Solon, OH, USA) and contaminating red blood cells were lysed using a BMS-777607 hypotonic ammonium chloride solution. After isolation all cells were washed and resuspended in PBS supplemented with 2% FCS (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) for subsequent assays or frozen in a 90% FCS/10% DMSO solution. Cell surface staining was carried out using standard protocols ZD1839 nmr for our laboratory as described previously 2 using antibodies listed in Table 1. Intracellular staining for perforin was done using Caltag Fix & Perm (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer’s recommended protocol. All acquisitions were made on an LSR II (BD Biosciences) and analyzed using FlowJo software (Tree Star, Ashland, OR, USA). To further confirm the identity
of NK cells and mDCs, we examined their functional responses to NK- and DC-specific ligands ex vivo. PBMCs were resuspended in RPMI 1640 (Sigma-Aldrich) containing 10% FBS and stimulated at an E/T ratio of 2.5:1 with 721.221 cells; PMA (50 ng/mL) and ionomycin (1 μg/mL); poly I:C (100 μg/mL); or medium alone. Anti-CD107a was added directly to each of the tubes at a concentration of 20 μL/mL and Golgiplug (brefeldin A) and Golgistop (monensin) were added at final concentrations of 6 μg/mL, then all samples were cultured for 12 h at 37°C in 5% CO2. After culture, samples were surface-stained using markers to delineate NK cells (CD3, CD8, CD16) and mDCs (HLA-DR, CD11c) as shown in Fig. 1. Cells were then permeabilized using Caltag Fix & Perm and intracellular cytokine staining was performed for IFN-γ, IL-12, and TNF-α. All statistical and graphical analyses were done using GraphPad Prism 5.0 software (GraphPad Software, La Jolla, CA, USA).
To confirm this speculation, we used a different cytokine of IL-10 to stimulate primary human NK cells, and found
that IL-10 increased STAT-3 phosphorylation significantly and enhanced the expression of NK cell receptors and cytotoxicity; we also showed clear reverse effects with a STAT-3 inhibitor (unpublished this website data). Contrary to an earlier report , we found in our study that STAT-3 phosphorylation could increase NK cell cytotoxicity. This inconsistency may come from species variation: we used human NK cells and the earlier study used murine NK cells and/or different cell applications: we used the expanded NK cells in vitro, while the earlier study used them to infiltrate tumour cells. Of course, additional experiments are necessary to test these hypotheses. In conclusion, we developed
a simple and efficient method to produce functional human NK cells from PBMCs, and discovered that STAT-3 phosphorylation selleck chemical is required for human NK cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. This may benefit the development of adoptive NK cell immunotherapy to treat viral diseases and cancers. This work was supported by grants from National Natural Science Foundation (81071858; 81273216), Innovative Scientific Research Key Project of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (11ZZ105), Leading Academic Discipline Project of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (J50201) and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tumor Microenvironment and Inflammation (11DZ2260200). The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Fig. S1. Expression of CD137 ligand (CD137L) and membrane-bound interleukin (mbIL)-21 on the surface of engineered K562 cells. A: CD137L staining; B: mbIL-21 staining. Fig. S2. Effects of JSI-124 on natural killer (NK) cells. A: Expression level and phosphorylation status of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3)
in primary natural killer (NK) cells after treatment with 20 ng/ml of interleukin (IL)-21 in the presence or absence of 0·1 μM JSI-124 for 24 h. B: NK cell viability was evaluated by fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) after different doses of JSI-124 treatment at different time-points. This was Rapamycin price representative of three independent primary NK cells. Results were repeated with three independent expanded NK cells, and similar results were obtained. Fig. S3. Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) inhibition impaired expression of natural killer (NK) cell receptors. NK cells were initially expanded for 2 weeks as described in Materials and methods, and then 1 × 107 expanded NK cells were continued to expand in the presence or absence of 0·1 μM JSI-124. Three days later, the expression of NK cell receptors was detected by fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS). The percentage decrease was calculated by comparing the mean expression levels of JSI-124-treated cells to those of the untreated control cells; n = 4.