1 episodes/1000 patients versus 50 episodes/1000 patients; P < 0.0001) . These data suggest that HAART use may improve immune status and may reduce the incidence of MRSA infections. However, many LEE011 solubility dmso studies have failed to find an association between MRSA and HAART use, suggesting that factors unrelated to antiretroviral use may be important. Recent antibiotic use (e.g. β-lactams, clindamycin and ciprofloxacin) is associated with an increased risk for MRSA SSTIs among HIV-infected persons, the latter antibiotic specifically associated with multi-drug-resistant strains [5, 20,
32]. Prophylaxis with TMP-SMX, primarily for prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, has demonstrated a protective effect against CA-MRSA infections, and can reduce the odds of developing an MRSA SSTI by 80% . TMP-SMX may not be protective in the setting of hospital-acquired or drug-resistant strains
[28, 32]. The importance of high-risk sexual behaviours as a risk factor has been noted in several investigations. Lack of condom use, visiting a public bath, anal intercourse, sex with multiple partners, anonymous sex and a history of STIs (e.g. syphilis) Autophagy Compound Library have been associated with MRSA SSTIs [5, 10, 24]. MSM as a risk group has also been associated with MRSA (including multi-drug-resistant strains), and one epidemiological report suggested that the risk of MRSA infection appears to be more associated with male–male sex than with HIV infection itself . The mechanisms for these associations may involve intimate contact with transfer of MRSA, skin abrasions, and/or exposure to MRSA colonizing the gastrointestinal tract during anal sex . Illicit drug use is an important risk factor for MRSA infection in the general population and in HIV-infected persons [24, 55]. Two studies observed a 5- to 8-fold increased risk for MRSA SSTIs among HIV-infected methamphetamine users [10, 24], which may be partly related to participation in high-risk sexual behaviours. Prior hospitalization remains an important risk factor for MRSA infections among HIV-infected persons,
suggesting that healthcare-associated acquisition of MRSA is still a significant issue [20, 24, 28]. Other MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit factors that may be associated with MRSA infections – such as gym use, participation in contact sports and a history of incarceration – have not been evaluated in most studies among HIV-infected persons. While these are risk factors for MRSA acquisition in the general population, they may play a less prominent role than the other factors cited above ; however, further data among HIV-infected patients are needed. In summary, given the decreasing numbers of HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression in the HAART era, behavioural factors may be contributing significantly to the increased risk for MRSA infections among HIV-infected persons and may be a potential target for MRSA prevention.