6) across the anion-exchange membrane (AEM) was very low, under <

6) across the anion-exchange membrane (AEM) was very low, under https://www.selleckchem.com/products/SB-202190.html similar experimental conditions. Under optimum experimental conditions, separation of GLU from GLU-LYS mixture was achieved with moderate energy consumption (12.9 kWh kg(-1)), high current efficiency (CE) (65%) and 85% recovery of GLU.

CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the electro-transport rate of AA and membrane selectivity, it was concluded that the separation of GLU-LYS mixture was possible at pH 8.0, because of the oppositely charged

nature of the two amino acids due to their different pi values. Moreover, any type of membrane fouling and deterioration in membrane conductivity was ruled out under experimental conditions. This work clearly demonstrates the great potential of EMP for industrial applications. (C) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry”
“A correct function of adipocytes in connection with cellular fatty acid loading and release is a vital aspect of energy homeostasis; dysregulation of these reactions can result in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, adipocytes have been proposed to play a major role in preventing lipotoxicity by removing excess fatty acids from the circulation and converting them into triglycerides and thus decreasing the exposure of other cells to their potentially harmful

effects. We report here that the addition of a-tocopheryl phosphate (but not a-tocopherol) to NIH3T3-L1 preadipocytes transcriptionally activates a set of genes TRB3 (Tribbles Selleck INCB024360 Homolog 3), Sestrin-2

(SESN2), and Insulin-Induced Selleckchem Sapanisertib Gene 1 (INSIG1)] potentially preventing fat accumulation in these cells. In contrast, in differentiated adipocytes, a-tocopheryl phosphate is responsible for the transcriptional inhibition of the same genes, possibly facilitating fat uptake and storage. In conclusion, it appears that in proliferating preadipocytes a-tocopheryl phosphate foils fat accumulation, whereas in adipocytes it enhances it. These processes may be relevant in the regulation of excess fat accumulation and in prevention of lipotoxicity. (C) 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.”
“BACKGROUND: Unutilized dyes present a significant environmental problem. Recently, biological activated carbon has been used extensively for the removal of gas and wastewater pollutants but its use in dye removal is still limited. The system provides simultaneous adsorption of pollutants and biodegradation/biotransformation of pollutants in a single reactor, and showed high efficiency and a long working life.

RESULTS: The adsorption of Reactive Black 5 by three selected adsorbents, F400, bone char and bamboo activated carbon, was studied. The relationships between adsorption, desorption, bioregeneration and the effect of nutrient on dye adsorption was assessed. The potential value of using adsorbents as a microbial support in the biodegradation of Reactive Black 5 was investigated.

However, the existing numerical observers

However, the existing numerical observers click here are still limited in diagnostic tasks: the detection task has been largely studied, while the localization task concerning one signal has been little studied and the localization of multiple signals has not been studied yet. In addition, most existing numerical observers need a priori knowledge about all the parameters

of the underdetection signals, while only a few of them need at least two signal parameters. In this paper, we propose a novel numerical observer called the perceptually relevant channelized joint observer (PCJO), which cannot only detect but also localize multiple signals with unknown amplitude, orientation, size and location. We validated the PCJO for predicting human observer task performance by conducting a clinically relevant free-response subjective experiment in which six radiologists (including two experts) had to detect and localize multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions on magnetic resonance (MR) images. By using the jackknife alternative free-response operating characteristic (JAFROC) as the figure of merit (FOM), the detection-localization task

performance of the PCJO was evaluated and then compared to that of the radiologists and two other numerical BMS-345541 concentration observers-channelized hotelling observer (CHO) and Goossenss CHO for detecting asymmetrical signals with random orientations. Overall, the results show that the PCJO performance was closer to that of the experts than to that of the other radiologists. The JAFROC1 FOMs of the PCJO (around 0.75) are not significantly different from those of the two experts (0.7672 and 0.7110), while

the JAFROC1 FOMs of the numerical observers mentioned above (always over 0.84) outperform those of the experts. This indicates that the PCJO is a promising method for predicting radiologists’ performance in the joint detection-localization task.”
“Vitamin YM155 D has an important role in bone-metabolism (and its deficiency can cause preterm osteopenia, craniotabe and rickets), but it has also non-calcitropic functions. In fact, vitamin D deficiency is correlated to chronic kidney disease, respiratory infections, type 1 diabetes, psoriasis, Crohn disease and neonatal hypocalcemia. Because of the vitamin D deficiency is a global problem, its role as a drug is fundamental for the human health in all ages.”
“Whereas straw management presents a continuing challenge among farmers, tremendous opportunities may exist within the natural fibers in terms of value-added products or chemicals. This research provides the first assessment and demonstration of feasibility of an enzyme-assisted production of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) from hemp and flax fibers. A newly cloned endoglucanase (AoEG), derived from Aspergillus oryzae and characterized to be a thermostable enzyme with a half-life of 50h at 50 degrees C was used for the hydrolysis.

We used laser vaporization coupled to mass spectrometry of the pr

We used laser vaporization coupled to mass spectrometry of the produced vapor to study urania vapor composition at temperatures in the vicinity of its melting point and higher. The very good agreement between measured melting and freezing temperatures and between partial pressures measured on the temperature increase and decrease indicated that the change in stoichiometry during laser heating was very limited. The evolutions with temperature (in the range 2800-3400 K) of the partial pressures of the main vapor species (UO(2), UO(3), and UO(2)(+)) were compared with theoretically predicted evolutions for equilibrium noncongruent gas-liquid and gas-solid phase coexistences and showed very good agreement.

The measured main relative partial pressure ratios around 3300 K all agree with calculated values for total equilibrium

between condensed and vapor phases. It is the first MLN8237 nmr time the three main partial pressure ratios above stoichiometric liquid urania have been measured at the same temperature under conditions close to equilibrium noncongruent gas-liquid phase coexistence. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3533439]“
“Integrons have been observed to be frequently associated with uropathogenic bacteria. This study aimed at 1) determining the prevalence of class 1 integrons among ESBL-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli, and 2) analyzing resistance genes associated with different phylogenetic groups of the integron-positive isolates with special reference to bla(CTX-M) and bla(TEM). Twenty-three ESBL-producing E. coli were studied: Enterobacterial repetitive

intergenic consensus-PCR Selleck I BET 762 (ERIC-PCR) displayed 14 major patterns. Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis-typing of 8 randomly selected integron-positive strains ruled out any correlation between genotype and antibiotype. Genomic DNA from 14 strains was PCR-positive for class 1 integrons, bla(CTX-M-15) and bla(TEM-1)-like genes. Integron-sequencing reval-ed “”aadA5-dfrA17-dfrA7″” as the most prevalent gene cassette. Our findings unveil the increasing role of the bla-(CTX-M) genes in antibiotic resistance and emphasize on the significance of appropriate empirical treatment for Urinary Tract Infections. CH5183284 in vitro Moreover, this is the first study which reports bla(CTX-M) located on genomic DNA of bacteria from India.”
“Objective. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method to regenerate articular cartilage of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by transplantation of free autogenous costal perichondrium (PC).

Study design. In the study, 50 adult rabbits received the operation. For the surgery in the test group, the rabbits were randomly matched in pairs within the group and underwent the surgery of cross transplantation of costal PC after trimming the articular surface of the condyle. Operations were carried out in the same way in the experimental group except for PC transplantation.

Multiple factors interact to regulate the establishment and maint

Multiple factors interact to regulate the establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation in plant genome.

We had previously cloned and characterized DNA methyltransferase (DNA MTase) gene homologues (OsMET1) from rice. In this present study, determination of DNA MTase activity in different cellular compartments showed that DNA MTase was enriched in nuclei and the activity was remarkably increased during imbibing dry seeds. We had optimized the purification technique for DNA MTase enzyme from shoots of 10-day-old rice seedlings using the three successive check details chromatographic columns. The Econo-Pac Q the Hitrap-Heparin and the Superdex-200 columns yielded a protein fraction of a specific activity of 29, 298 and 800 purification folds, compared to the original nuclear extract, respectively. The purified protein preferred hemi-methylated DNA substrate, suggesting

the maintenance activity of methylation. The native rice DNA MTase was approximately 160-170 kDa and exhibited a broad pH optimum in the range of 7.6 and 8.0. The enzyme kinetics and inhibitory find more effects by methyl donor analogs, base analogs, cations, and cationic amines on rice DNA MTase were examined. Global cytosine methylation status of rice genome during development and in various tissue culture systems were monitored and the results suggested that the cytosine methylation level is not directly correlated with the DNA MTase activity. The purification and characterization of rice DNA MTase enzyme are expected to enhance our understanding of this enzyme function and their possible contributions in Gramineae plant development. Pexidartinib Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Misfit defects in a 3C-SiC/Si (001) interface were investigated using a 200 kV high-resolution electron microscope with a point resolution

of 0.194 nm. The [110] high-resolution electron microscopic images that do not directly reflect the crystal structure were transformed into the structure map through image deconvolution. Based on this analysis, four types of misfit dislocations at the 3C-SiC/Si (001) interface were determined. In turn, the strain relaxation mechanism was clarified through the generation of grow-in perfect misfit dislocations (including 90 degrees Lomer dislocations and 60 degrees shuffle dislocations) and 90 partial dislocations associated with stacking faults. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3234380]“
“Antioxidant and nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitory activities of various extracts from scouring rush (Equisetum hyemale L.) were investigated. Antioxidant assays including DPPH free radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay, metal-chelating assay, superoxide radical scavenging assay, and nitrite scavenging ability, and assays to determine total phenolic and flavonoid contents were performed. The inhibition of NO production was measured in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced RAW 264.

PolyQ tracts may impede the activity of the proteasome, and evide

PolyQ tracts may impede the activity of the proteasome, and evidence from single cell imaging suggests that the sequestration of polyQ into inclusion bodies can reduce the proteasomal burden and promote cell survival, at least in the short term. The presence of misfolded protein also leads to activation of stress kinases such as p38MAPK, which can be cytotoxic. The relationships of these systems are not well understood. We have used fluorescent reporter systems imaged in living CT99021 manufacturer cells, and stochastic computer modeling to explore the relationships

of polyQ, p38MAPK activation, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteasome inhibition, and inclusion body formation. In cells expressing a polyQ protein inclusion, body formation was preceded by proteasome inhibition but cytotoxicity was greatly reduced by administration of a p38MAPK inhibitor. Computer selleck chemical simulations suggested that without the generation of ROS, the proteasome inhibition and activation of p38MAPK would have significantly reduced toxicity. Our data suggest a vicious cycle of stress kinase activation and proteasome inhibition that is ultimately lethal to cells. There was close agreement between experimental

data and the predictions of a stochastic computer model, supporting a central role for proteasome inhibition and p38MAPK activation in inclusion body formation and ROS-mediated cell death.”
“Basic treatment of magnetically soft ferromagnetic metals has been a long struggle during the 55 years of the MMM conferences. At the first conference, Charles Bean brought on stage a four-foot-long mechanical analog of a domain wall. Landau, twenty years earlier had shown that the wall exists to minimize the magnetostatic self-energy of the dipole moments that accompany the spins LY2090314 chemical structure responsible for ferromagnetism, but no one could calculate the energy of the simple structure that Landau used to illustrate his conjecture. The structure itself was not

adequately described. Today, computer programs use the full power of micromagnetics to properly describe the vortex structure that was hidden in Landau’s model. Vortices terminate in swirls that can be manipulated by small bias fields (mT) or currents (mA). The swirls carry external fields of 0.5 T and can oscillate (driven or freely) over distances of tens of nm in times of tenths of ns, providing new tools for scientific and technical advances on the atomic scale. That this could have been overlooked for so long is evidence of the difficulty of visualizing the consequence of what for all these years has been called the pole-avoidance principle. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3561783]“
“Background: Malignant melanoma is often accompanied by a host response of inflammatory cell infiltration that is highly regulated by multiple adhesion molecules.

We present language results from our rTMS studies as well as imag

We present language results from our rTMS studies as well as imaging results from overt naming functional MRI scans obtained before and after a series of rTMS treatments. Part 3 presents results from a pilot study in which rTMS treatments were followed immediately by constraint-induced language therapy. Part 4 reviews our diffusion tensor imaging study examining the possible connectivity of the arcuate fasciculus to different parts of Broca’s area (pars triangularis, pars opercularis) DMH1 ic50 and to the ventral premotor cortex.

The potential role of mirror neurons in the right pars opercularis and ventral premotor cortex in aphasia recovery is discussed.”
“Silicone rubber foam was prepared through crosslinking with electron beam irradiation and foaming by the decomposing of blowing agent azobisformamide Alvespimycin datasheet (AC) in hot air. The crosslinking and foaming of silicone rubber was carried out separately, which was different from the conventional method of chemical crosslinking and foaming. After foaming, the silicone rubber foam was irradiated again to stabilize the foam structure and further improve its

mechanical properties. The effects of irradiation dose before and after foaming, and the amount of blowing agents on the structure and properties of silicone rubber foam were studied. The experimental results show that with the increase of AC content, the average cell diameter of silicone rubber foam increases a little, the foam density decreases to a minimum value when AC content

is 10 phr. With the increase of irradiation dose before foaming from 10 to 17.5 kGy, the cell nucleation density of silicone rubber foam increases, the average Momelotinib cell diameter decreases, and the foam density increases. With the increase of irradiation before foaming, the tensile strength, tensile modulus, and the elongation at break of the silicone rubber foam increase. Through irradiation crosslinking again after foaming, the foam density is decreased and the mechanical properties of silicone foam are further improved. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 113: 3590-3595, 2009″
“Background: Numerous studies have confirmed the short-term effectiveness of 8-methoxypsoralen bath PUVA therapy in patients with chronic palmoplantar dermatoses; however, little is known about long-term results.

Patients and methods: In this retrospective study we examined the long-term results in 79 patients (mean age: 48 years) with chronic palmoplantar dermatoses who were treated with bath PUVA three times a week over an 8-year period. A good clinical response (a reduction of more than 50 % of the skin lesions) occurred after a mean of 23 treatments and a mean cumulative UVA dose of 39 J/cm(2) in 51 patients (65 %). In 2007 a questionnaire was sent to these 51 patients to assess the long-term outcome.

75 (95% confidence interval: 0 71-0 79) without

75 (95% confidence interval: 0.71-0.79) without find more heterogeneity or publication bias. The analysis of six studies involving 258 patients yielded a pooled specificity (other) of 0.95 (95% confidence interval: 0.92-0.98) without no heterogeneity or

publication bias. We attempted to conduct a meta-analysis with the 10 studies involving 1916 patients to estimate specificity (unknown and other), but it remained unclear due to moderate heterogeneity and possible publication bias. In our meta-analysis, sensitivity of the index test was moderate and specificity (other) was high; however, the specificity (unknown and other) remained unclear.”
“The present study reports the prevalence, effects of treatment and cost benefit analysis of bovine fasciolosis in five districts of Punjab Province viz Sargodha, Jhang, Muzaffargarh, Lodhran and Layyah. From each of the five

districts, 80 animals were selected and fortnightly screened through standard coprological procedures for a period of one year for the presence of eggs of Fasciola species. Of 4800 faecal Dinaciclib samples analyzed, 1222 (25.46%) were found positive for fasciolosis. The occurrence of Fasciola (F.) gigantica (22.40%) was higher (P < 0.05) than F. hepatica (3.06%). Highest month-wise prevalence (P < 0.05) of fasciolosis was found in winter (39.08%) followed in decreasing order by spring (29.50%), autumn (20.33%) and summer (12.92%). District-wise prevalence of fasciolosis was highest (P < 0.05) in Sargodha (40.31%) and lowest in Layyah (11.77%) while other districts were having intermediate values of prevalence of fasciolosis. Species-wise prevalence of fasciolosis was found higher (P < 0.05) in buffaloes (30.50%) as compared selleck chemical to cattle (20.42%). However, there were no age and sex-related differences (P > 0.05) in prevalence of fasciolosis. A strong positive association of grazing (OR = 1.81), mixed farming of small and large ruminants (OR = 1.39), stagnant pond bathing (OR = 2.24) and river/canal bathing (OR = 2.06) was found with

the prevalence of fasciolosis as compared to stall feeding, separate farming of small and large ruminants and rivers/canal/tap water bathing, respectively. Post-treatment average milk increase of 0.62 L per animal per day with 0.35% higher fat was observed in fasciolicide-treated animals with the cost benefit ratio of 3.9. The results provided significant data on the epidemiology of five districts of Punjab province which may be helpful for the planners and small holder dairy farmers for control of fasciolosis in the study districts. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: The aim of the study was to provide a morphological assessment of the laryngeal mucosa in patients with hyperfunctional dysphonia diagnosed by psychoacoustic and videostroboscopic methods.

Slightly more embryos were transferred in the < 3 embryo group

Slightly more embryos were transferred in the < 3 embryo group. Pregnancy rates (14/32 [43.8%] vs 96/219 [43.8%];

P = NS) and ongoing pregnancy rates (10/32 [31.2%] vs 80/219 [36.5%]; P = NS) were comparable.


Based on the analysis of our data, the number of top-quality cleavage stage embryos did not significantly influence BET outcome. Besides embryo selection, other factors such as improved embryo-endometrium this website synchrony probably play an important role in the higher implantation and pregnancy rates.”
“Site-specific delivery of anticancer based therapy of human cancers has led to several remarkable outcomes, particularly in the therapy of breast cancer and lymphoma. Camptothecin, a plant secondary metabolite is widely used in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer and lymphoma. However its side effect profile often results in cessation of therapy. In this study the principle of both active as well as passive targeting using camptothecin loaded stealth liposomes as per the magic gun approach was followed. Stealth liposomes of camtothecin were prepared by thin film hydration method using a PEGylated phospholipid like DSPE-MPEG 2000. Similarly conventional liposomes were prepared using

phospholipids like DPPC, DSPC. Conventional LXH254 nmr liposomes were coated with a hydrophilic biocompatible polymer like chitosan. It was found that chitosan coating of the conventional liposomes increased the physical stability of the liposomal suspension. Galardin mw Further, chitosan coated conventional liposomes and the PEGylated liposomes released the drug for a prolonged period of time, compared to the uncoated conventional

liposomes. In vivo screening of the formulations for their antitumor efficacy was carried out in rats. Breast cancer was induced in female Sprague Dawley rats using an indirectly acting chemical carcinogen DMBA (7, 12 dimethyl benz(a)anthracene). It was found that there was significant decrease (P<0.01) in tumor volume in the rat group treated with test 2 formulation and test 1 formulation compared to standard free CPT. However the chitosan coated liposomal formulation showed a better antitumor efficacy than that of the PEGylated liposomal formulation.”
“Carnivora is one of the most species-rich order of Mammalia. Some species, e.g. domestic cats, dogs and ferrets, are among the most popular pets; others, such as minks and farmed foxes, have economic value for the fur breeding industry. Still others, such as tigers, bears and other top predators, have great impact on the health of natural ecosystems. Most if not all Carnivora species have great cultural and aesthetic importance for man. There are enormous differences between mammalian species in reproductive physiology, and it is not surprising that reproductive technologies can be used with high efficiency with some animal groups, e.g.

We also observed a slower growth rate and changes

in the

We also observed a slower growth rate and changes

in the biochemical and physiological characteristics of the drug-resistant bacteria. In the resistant strain, a total of BIBF 1120 51 protein spots were increased in abundance relative to the wild-type strain, including an outer membrane protein A, which is related to bacterial virulence. The mouse infection assay showed a higher invasiveness of the Ec-ERT strain in relation to the Ec-WT strain. In conclusion, the alterations driven by ertapenem in E. coil reinforce the idea that antimicrobial agents may interfere in several aspects of bacterial cell biology, with possible implications for host-bacteria interactions.”
“Objective. The objective of this study was to develop a novel polymerase chain reaction

(PCR) method to comprehensively analyze salivary bacterial flora.

Study design. The bacterial flora in the saliva of 10 healthy persons and 11 patients with odontogenic infections were examined using a DNA extraction method with a high level of cell destruction efficiency and a novel universal primer set to amplify approximately 580 bp of the learn more 16S rDNA sequence.

Results. Streptococcus (54.5%), Neisseria (14.7%), Actinomyces (8.4%), Gemella (4.1%), Granulicatella (3.8%), and Prevotella (1.4%) were dominant in a total of 1655 clones examined from the saliva of the healthy subjects. The dominant genera differed among the patients with odontogenic infections (a total of 823 clones) and were entirely different from those of the healthy subjects.

Conclusion. This novel comprehensive salivary bacterial flora analysis method may be a useful supportive method to identify causative agents of odontogenic infections. (Oral Surg

Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral VX-770 Radiol Endod 2010; 109: 669-676)”
“Degradation mechanisms limiting the electrical reliability of GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) are generally attributed to defect generation by hot-electrons but specific mechanisms for such processes have not been identified. Here we give a model for the generation of active defects by the release of hydrogen atoms that passivate pre-exisiting defects. We report first-principles density-functional calculations of several candidate point defects and their interaction with hydrogen in GaN, under different growth conditions. Candidate precursor point defects in device quality GaN are identified by correlating previously observed trap levels with calculated optical levels. We propose dehydrogenation of point defects as a generic physical mechanism for defect generation in HEMTs under hot-electron stress when the degradation is not spontaneously reversible.

All rights reserved “
“Sulfur mustard (2,2-dichlorodiethyl s

All rights reserved.”
“Sulfur mustard (2,2-dichlorodiethyl sulfide: SM), the protagonist of vesicant chemical weapons, was first used in July 1917. Despite prohibition of its production and use by international conventions, it has been used in several conflicts. More than 100,000

soldiers and civilians were injured due to SM exposure during Iran–Iraq war (1980–1988). The acute skin PD173074 Angiogenesis inhibitor lesions consist of erythema, edema, and blisters. Skin xerosis and pruritus, pigmentation disorders, scars, and cherry angiomas are among the most common long-term skin lesions after contact with SM. Although SM is a well-known carcinogenic substance, skin cancers are rarely reported.</.”
“Introduction: Digital photoplethysmography (PPG) provides an inexpensive, reproducible, quantitative, non-invasive assessment of lower limb venous function. Aim: To examine the relationship between venous refilling time (VRT) and severity of venous disease, and also between changes in VRT and symptomatic improvement after ultrasound guided foam

sclerotherapy (UGFS) VS-4718 mouse for symptomatic superficial venous reflux (SVR).

Methods: Prior to and 6 months after UGFS, 246 patients (317 limbs) completed a symptom questionnaire, underwent duplex ultrasonography and clinical assessment, and VRT measurement by digital PPG. Health related quality of life (HRQL) questionnaires were also completed.

Results: Median VRT improved from 11 to 31 s (P < 0.0005, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks). Abnormal VRT (<20 s) correlated well with the Y-27632 molecular weight presence

of SVR on duplex (sensitivity 75%, specificity 94%). Pre-treatment there was a significant relationship between reducing VRT and increasing CEAP clinical grade (P < 0.0005, x(2)), extent of SVR on duplex (P < 0.0005) and a non-significant relationship with overall increasing symptom severity (P = 0.097). Relief of all symptoms was more likely when there was normalisation of VRT after treatment (80% vs. 65%, P < 0.0005, x(2)). Pre-treatment VRT correlated with both generic physical (r = 0.428, P = 0.002) and disease-specific (r = 0.413, P = 0.003, Spearman’s rank) HRQL.

Conclusions: UGFS for SVR improves VRT measured by digital PPG and that improvement correlates with symptom relief. (C) 2010 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To explore how patients’ treatment preferences were expressed and justified during recruitment to a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and how they influenced participation and treatment decisions.

Study Design and Setting: Qualitative analysis of audio recordings of recruitment appointments with 93 participants aged 51-70 years in a UK multicenter RCT of localized prostate cancer treatments.

Results: Treatment preferences at recruitment were more complex and dynamic than previously assumed. Most participants expressed views about treatments early in appointments, ranging on a continuum from hesitant to well-formed opinions.