e , 1H resonance frequency of 400 MHz

e., 1H resonance frequency of 400 MHz selleck compound for a standard HPLC-NMR coupling. The analytical flow cell was initially constructed for continuous-flow NMR acquisition. However, the need for full structural assignment of unknown compounds, especially novel natural products, has led to the application in the stopped-flow mode. In fact, the benefits of the closed-loop separation�Cidentification circuit, together with the prospect of using all presently available 2D and 3D NMR techniques in a fully automated way, have prompted the development of stopped-flow modes, e.g., time-slice mode. A typical experimental arrangement of LC-NMR is shown in Figure 4. Figure 4 A typical LC-NMR system Generally, in LC-NMR system, the LC unit comprises autosampler, LC pump, column, and a non-NMR detector (e.g.

, UV, DAD, EC, refractive index, or radioactivity). From this detector, the flow is guided into the LC-NMR interface, which can be equipped with additional loops for the intermediate storage of selected LC peaks. The flow from the LC-NMR interface is then guided either to the flow-cell NMR probe-head or to the waste receptacle. Following passage through the probe-head, the flow is routed to a fraction collector for recovery and further investigation of the various fractions analyzed by NMR. An MS can also be attached to the system via a splitter at the output of the LC-NMR interface. In most of the LC-NMR operations, reversed-phase columns are used, employing a binary or tertiary solvent mixture with isocratic or gradient elution. The protons of the solvents of the mobile phase cause severe problems for obtaining an adequate NMR spectrum.

The receiver of the NMR spectrometer is not quite able to handle the intense solvent signals and the weak substance signals at the same time. To overcome this problem, solvent signal suppression can be achieved by one of the three major methods: presaturation, soft-pulse multiple irradiation or water suppression enhancement through T1 effects (WET) presaturation employing a z-gradient.[12] This problem can also be minimized by considering the following guidelines: Using eluents that have as few 1H NMR resonances as possible, e.g., H2O, ACN, or MeOH. Using at least one deuterated solvent, e.g., D2O (approx $290/L), ACN-d3 (approx $1600/L), or MeOD (approx $3000/L). Using buffers that have as few 1H NMR resonances as possible, e.g.

, TFA or ammonium acetate. Using ionpair reagents that have as few 1H NMR resonances as possible, e.g., ionpairs with t-butyl groups create an additional resonance. To date, three Anacetrapib main types of data acquisition modes have been introduced: continuous-flow acquisition, stopped-flow acquisition, and time-sliced acquisition.[12] Whatever may be the acquisition mode, an optimized HPLC separation is crucial to any LC-NMR analysis. As the sensitivity of LC-NMR is much less than other hyphenated techniques, e.g.

The predicted CDSs were translated and used to search the Nationa

The predicted CDSs were translated and used to search the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant database, UniProt, TIGR-Fam, Pfam, PRIAM, KEGG, COG, and InterPro databases. Additional gene prediction analysis and functional annotation was performed within the Integrated Microbial Genomes – Expert Review (IMG-ER) platform [36]. Genome properties The genome kinase inhibitor Nilotinib consists of an 8,371,686 bp long circular chromosome and three plasmids of 164,019 bp, 143,757 bp and 92,189 bp length, respectively, with a G+C content of 47.1% (Table 3 and Figure 3). Of the 6,918 genes predicted, 6,858 were protein-coding genes, and 60 RNAs; 106 pseudogenes were also identified. The majority of the protein-coding genes (58.6%) were assigned with a putative function while the remaining ones were annotated as hypothetical proteins.

The distribution of genes into COGs functional categories is presented in Table 4. Table 3 Genome Statistics Figure 3 Graphical circular map of the chromosome (plasmid maps not shown). From outside to the center: Genes on forward strand (color by COG categories), Genes on reverse strand (color by COG categories), RNA genes (tRNAs green, rRNAs red, other RNAs black), … Table 4 Number of genes associated with the general COG functional categories Acknowledgements We would like to gratefully acknowledge the help of Anja Fr��hling (DSMZ) for growing H. hydrossis cultures. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program, and by the University of California, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under contract No.

DE-AC02-05CH11231, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344, and Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract No. DE-AC02-06NA25396, UT-Battelle and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725, as well as German Research Foundation (DFG) INST 599/1-1.
A representative genomic 16S rRNA sequence of H. praevalens was compared using NCBI AV-951 BLAST under default values (e.g., considering only the best 250 hits) with the most recent release of the Greengenes database [13] and the relative frequencies, weighted by BLAST scores, of taxa and keywords (reduced to their stem [14]) were determined. The five most frequent genera were Halanaerobium (81.9%), Halothermothrix (7.8%), Halanaerobacter (2.7%), Acetohalobium (2.3%) and Natroniella (1.9%). Regarding hits to sequences from other members of the genus, the average identity within HSPs (high-scoring segment pairs) was 97.8%, whereas the average coverage by HSPs was 96.3%. The species yielding the highest score was Halanaerobium saccharolyticum.

Driving ontology development The Ontogrator could be used to help

Driving ontology development The Ontogrator could be used to help mature and improve the ontologies it relies upon. More precisely, it could implement a mechanism to provide feedback on terms that have either been overrepresented in data (and may need further specialization) useful handbook or do not exist in the current hierarchy (e.g., a term clearing house can be provided for the submission of new terms to existing ontologies). Similarly, Ontogrator could be open to user-driven updates of annotations/mappings of the Ontograted resources (e.g., a user can indicate that a returned entry is not relevant to a particular query, so the software could have the ability to learn e.g., by removing the annotations and/or by re-training the mapping tools.

Conclusions We argue that the combined approach of faceted browsing and resource aggregation is an effective solution for aligning and mining information across a collection of related databases. Furthermore, by combining the power of searching over information resources with ontologies, complex distributed data sets can be searched over whilst leveraging the combined knowledge of expert communities. Acknowledgements The work on the Ontogrator Platform presented here was funded by the NERC Environmental Bioinformatics Centre (NEBC), UK.
The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the strain TK-6T (“type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”Z30214″,”term_id”:”520869″,”term_text”:”Z30214″Z30214) shows the highest degree of sequence identity, 97%, to the type strain of H. hydrogenophilus [6].

Further analysis shows 96% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with an uncultured Aquificales bacterium clone pKA (“type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”AF453505″,”term_id”:”21666733″,”term_text”:”AF453505″AF453505) from a near-neutral thermal spring in Kamchatka, Russia. The single genomic 16S rRNA sequence of H. thermophilus was compared with the most recent release of the Greengenes database [13] using NCBI BLAST under default values and the relative frequencies of taxa and keywords, weighted by BLAST scores, were determined. The five most frequent genera were Hydrogenobacter (52.4%), Entinostat Thermocrinis (18.8%), Aquifex (10.3%), Sulfurihydrogenibium (6.2%) and Hydrogenivirga (5.7%). Regarding hits to sequences from other members of the genus, the average identity within HSPs (high-scoring segment pairs) was 96.1%, whereas the average coverage by HSPs was 93.5%. The species yielding the highest score was H. hydrogenophilus. The five most frequent keywords within the labels of environmental samples which yielded hits were ‘hot’ (6.5%), ‘yellowstone’ (5.8%), ‘spring’ (5.6%), ‘national/park’ (5.4%) and ‘microbial’ (3.9%). These keywords corroborate what is known from the ecology and physiology of strain TK-6T [1,2].

The median preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level was

The median preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level was 14.4ng/dL. Median survival was 30 months. Recurrent liver disease developed in 78% of patients, with 82% of these recurrences in the liver. Complication rates were comparable to liver resection and operative mortality was 3.7%. This led http://www.selleckchem.com/products/brefeldin-a.html the authors to conclude that hepatic cryoablation is effective and safe in treating colorectal hepatic metastases under image guidance [49]. Cryoablation has also been used to palliate primary and metastatic bone lesions. Callstrom and colleagues prospectively assessed pain outcomes in 14 patients with osseous metastases from various tumors treated with cryoablation. Posttreatment scores for pain relief, worst pain, pain interference with daily activities, and narcotic medication use decreased with the use of cryoablation [50].

Advantages of cryoablation include the large ablation zone potential using multiple probes and ease of visualizing the ��iceball�� with CT guidance. Tuncali et al. reported complete and partial relief of pain in 6 of 19 and 11 of 19 patients with bone and soft tissue tumors, respectively, with a mean diameter of 5.2cm [51]. 3.3. Cementoplasty Cementoplasty refers to the percutaneous injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) to mechanically stabilize the skeletal system and provide pain relief in patients with osteolytic bony metastases. This stabilization prevents further collapse and relieves pain by mitigating stress on each vertebral body treated. Cementoplasty includes procedures such as vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty, sacroplasty, and osteoplasty, and is typically performed by trained interventional radiologists and surgeons [48].

The process of cementoplasty may be performed under general anesthesia or local anesthesia with conscious sedation or occasionally general anesthesia. A small incision is made, and, under image guidance with fluoroscopy, CT, or less commonly MRI, a trocar or needle is passed into the affected bone. Several commercially available cement preparations of PMMA, such as barium sulfate or tantalum, are mixed with materials to enhance radio-opacity, thereby allowing for better visualization and safer delivery with fluoroscopy. Evaluation of cement filling and potential leakage is also done through real-time imaging with fluoroscopy or CT-fluoroscopy (Figures 4(a)-4(b)).

Adverse effects of the procedure itself include, but are not limited to, transient radicular pain, bleeding, infection, recurrent or adjacent level fracture, and rarely symptomatic pulmonary embolus [48]. Despite these risks, clinically significant complications remain very low in the literature. Figure 4 Plasmacytoma of L2 (a) treated Entinostat with vertebroplasty (b). Cementoplasty has been proven to be effective in pain relief in published reports [52�C54]. Kelekis and colleagues reviewed 14 inoperable patients with painful bony metastases refractory to pain medications and radiation therapy.

The tree height of the leaves, i e the sum of the lengths of all

The tree height of the leaves, i.e. the sum of the lengths of all branches connecting a leaf with the root node of the tree, was slightly but significantly (�� = 1.0e-40) negatively correlated DAPT secretase cost with both bRPD and uRPD. Even though this behavior is in obvious conflict with the second design goal, the correlation between tree height and number of nodes between root and leaf must be considered (Table 2). If the effect of the number of nodes is corrected for by replacing the tree height with the residuals from a regression with the number of nodes as explanatory variable, the correlation to the bRPD and uRPD becomes moderately strong and positive. Table 2 Correlations between the balanced (bRPD) and the unbalanced (uRPD) variant of the score for each leaf (�� Height��).

Based on these results, we concluded that both measures comply with design goals (i) and (ii), but finally preferred bRPD because it showed more well-balanced correlations with the indicator of topological isolation on the one hand and the independent effect of the branch lengths on the other hand than uRPD. But the differences between both measures were not pronounced, particularly regarding the top-scoring species; in addition to Table 2, this is shown in the scatter plot in Figure 2 and in Table 3. Figure 2 Scatterplot showing the relationship between the two examined variants of the phylogenetic scoring, bRPD (x-axis) and uRPD (y-axis). In addition to the fact that the overall correlation between the two measures is high (see also Table 2), it is obvious … Table 3 Selection results for the 20 LTP strains with the highest bRPD scores.

The number of nodes between the root and each leaf (��# nodes��) and the residuals of a linear regression with the number of nodes as explanatory and the height as dependent variable (��Residual��). These residuals represent the average impact of the branch lengths, independent of the number of branches that contribute to the height. The lower left triangle shows Kendall’s correlation coefficients, the upper right triangle shows the corresponding p values. Selection of targets for genome sequencing In addition to the close correspondence between the two measures, Figure 2 demonstrates that the distribution of both bRPD and uRPD is strongly asymmetric, as comparatively few strains (close to upper right corner) display very high values compared to the bulk of the strains which show at most moderately high bRPD and uRPD measures (close to the lower left corner). This behavior is confirmed by Figure 3, which shows that 50% saturation regarding bRPD would already be obtained if only about 2,000 of the 8,029 Dacomitinib strains were genome sequenced. Figure 3 Saturation plot for the bRPD measure.

Nevertheless, performing an intracorporeal side-to-side mechanica

Nevertheless, performing an intracorporeal side-to-side mechanical ileocolic anastomosis from the suprapubic port requires wider mobilization of Nilotinib Bcr-Abl inhibitor the transverse colon in order to place it parallel to the stapler. Approximation and orientation of the ileal and colonic stumps is best achieved by pulling on two stitches placed at each end of the anastomosis, the proximal one being held by the 3mm grasper in the right hypochondrium and the distal one passing through the 12mm suprapubic port. The 3mm grasper in the right hypochondrium is also useful during hand suturing of the enterotomies. Finally, attention must be paid when maneuvering 3mm instruments, which must be done under direct vision throughout the operation.

Our experience suggests that in well-trained hands and for properly selected patients, ports can be reduced in size safely without a negative impact on the surgeon’s ability to perform laparoscopic colorectal resections. These findings should promote a larger prospective randomized comparison with conventional laparoscopy to determine whether this refinement of laparoscopic colorectal surgery confers concrete and incontrovertible benefits to the patients.
About 1-2% of boys at age of 1 year have an undescended testis (UDT); this disorder is unilateral in about 90% of individuals and bilateral in about 10% [1�C3]. Almost 20% of undescended testes are nonpalpable [4]. Undescended testes are usually evaluated and managed by imaging methods and surgery, respectively [5]. Laparoscopy was first used in 1976 to locate undescended testes [6].

Surgical treatment of undescended testis has included dividing the spermatic vessels to gain additional length and bringing the testis to the scrotum while maintaining the collateral blood supply [5]. The first stage of this procedure was later modified to include laparoscopic ligation of the spermatic vessels [7]. We describe here our single-institution experience with laparoscopic management of impalpable testes in children over the last 5 years. 2. Methods We retrospectively assessed the records of our institution to identify all patients below 14 years of age who underwent laparoscopy for impalpable testes between January 2006 and December 2010 (Figure 1).We identified 91 patients, 9 with bilateral and 82 with unilateral impalpable testes (total of 100 testes) who were laparoscopically managed.

Figure 1 Numbers of impalpable undescended testes explored laparoscopically per year from January 2006 to December 2010. All patients were reexamined under anesthesia to confirm that the testes were intra-abdominal. Laparoscopic exploration was performed by inserting a 5mm port supraumbilically using closed techniques and using a 5mm 0 camera. Secondary 2-3mm ports were placed under direct vision if required, and a 2mm atraumatic grasper was used. We attempted to identify the testes, testicular vessels, vas deferens, and whether Carfilzomib the internal inguinal rings (IIRs) were open or closed.

Individuals with CO scores above 5 ppm were included in the study

Individuals with CO scores above 5 ppm were included in the study, a criteria based on prior studies (Middleton & Morice, 2000; Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2002; Tonnesen, Norregaard, Mikkelsen, Jorgensen, & Nilsson, 1993). Participants were determined to be homeless based on the definition established by the Stewart find FAQ B. McKinney Act, passed by the U.S. congress in 1987. Homelessness was defined as ��any individual who lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence�� or ��one whose primary nighttime residence is a supervised publicly or privately operated shelter designed to provide temporary living accommodations, transitional housing, or other supportive housing program or a public or private place not meant for human habitation (e.g.

, on the streets or in abandoned buildings, tents, or automobiles)�� (Hwang, 2000; U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1987; Wilder Foundation, 2009). Figure 1. Screening and enrollment of study participants. Intervention Components Intervention components of the study have been described in detail elsewhere (Goldade et al., 2011) but summarized briefly below. Motivational Interviewing MI is designed to enhance motivation for change (Miller & Rollnick, 2002). Participants in the intervention arm received six MI counseling sessions from trained Bachelors- and Masters-level counselors each lasting approximately 20 min. To ensure fidelity to MI treatment, all sessions were audio recorded and reviewed during weekly supervision with a licensed clinical psychologist trained in MI.

During weekly supervision meetings, tapes were reviewed for treatment fidelity and direct instruction. In addition to ongoing supervision, at the initiation of the project, the MI counselors received two full days of training on the theory and method of conducting MI counseling sessions and approximately 40 hr of supervised training. MI counselors only provide counseling to participants in the MI arm. Standard Care Participants in the control comparison condition received ��SC,�� a 1-time session of health education and brief advice to quit smoking which lasted approximately 20 min, consistent with current smoking cessation clinical practice guidelines (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). To ensure fidelity, all SC sessions were audio recorded and reviewed during weekly supervision with doctoral-level coinvestigators.

During weekly supervision meetings, tapes were reviewed for treatment fidelity and direct instruction. Dacomitinib The counselors received one full day of training on SC counseling sessions and approximately 40 hr of supervised training. SC counselors only provide counseling to participants in the SC arm. Measures Overall, measures were taken from previously validated surveys and instruments.

Directly after C4 a reed node followed C1 and C4 were thus the n

Directly after C4 a reed node followed. C1 and C4 were thus the newest and oldest chamber harboring most sellckchem likely a female and a male, respectively, and were treated separately as two individual samples in the following. Chambers were not visibly affected by macro-pathogens, parasites or nest destroyers. As far as observable, they were intact and the individuals were healthy. DNA extraction For each chamber, we sampled all nest contents combined (including bees, cocoon, remaining pollen) for DNA extraction. Further swabs of the complete interior i.e. chamber walls and loam barriers were taken with sterile cutton buds. The merged pools of chamber contents were extracted with a spatula and together with the swabs transferred into the kit lysis buffer.

We used the MoBio PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit (Carlsbad, CA, USA), adequate for microbial DNA extraction in environmental samples. The substance in the buffer was mechanically disrupted with an electric hand-held homogenizer. The following extraction and isolation steps were performed according to the manufacturers instructions. The extraction kit uses a silica bead-beating step, which was performed on a vortexer with self-made horizontal probe mounts for 10 minutes at maximum speed. All tasks were performed with gloves and our tools were sterilized with 70% ethanol between sampling steps. Amplicons For PCR amplification, we used primers to amplify 16S ribsomal DNA of bacteria according to Hamady et al. [31] that enclose the variable regions V1-V2. It was found to be well suited for the phylogenetic analysis of pyrosequencing reads [31-34].

We used ��fusion�� primers designed to have 454 adapter regions and the targeting primers. The forward ��fusion�� primer (5��-CGTATCGCCTCCCTCGCGCCA-TCAG-AGAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAG-3��) consists of the 454 specific Adapter A, the linker key and the conserved forward primer 27f (the corresponding regions are delineated in the sequence by hyphens). The reverse ��fusion�� primer (5��-CTATGCGCCTTGCCAGCCCGC-TCAG-XXXXXXXXXX-CATGCTGCCTCCCGTAGGAGT-3��) contains the 454 specific Adapter B, the linker key, an multiplex identifier (MID) and the bacterial primer 338f (regions delineated in the sequence by hyphens). MIDs were used to analyze several samples together on the same sequencing chip. For our two nest samples we used the MIDs 5 (ATCAGACACG) and 7 (CGTGTCTCTA) officially suggested by Roche in a technical bulletin (454 Sequencing Technical Bulletin No.

005-2009, April 2009). Their position is indicated by placeholders ��X�� in the aforementioned reverse ��fusion�� primer sequence. The remaining MIDs were used for different projects using the same primers and target organisms (bacteria). Fusion primers were constructed at the Metabion laboratories (Martinsried, Germany). PCR reaction mixes consisted GSK-3 of 0.

Table 1 Participant Characteristics Factor Structure A confirmat

Table 1. Participant Characteristics Factor Structure A confirmatory sellckchem factor analysis was conducted to replicate the structure of the WSWS as reported in Welsch et al. (1999). The initial 28-item, 7-factor model produced an adequate fit (��2 [329] = 802.86, p < .0001; RMSEA =0.06, CFI = 0.92, TLI = 0.91, SRMR = 0.07). Examination of factor loadings and modification indices revealed two potential offending items. The first was item 1, ��food is not particularly appealing to me�� which loaded on the hunger factor in Welsch et al. but did not load on the hunger scale in the current sample, and was significantly associated with all other subscales. Removal of this item produced a model that adequately fits the data (��2 [303] = 709.38, p < .0001; RMSEA =0.06, CFI = 0.93, TLI = 0.92, SRMR = 0.

05), and this 27-item model was a better fit than the initial model as indicated by a smaller AIC (26,205 vs. 26,364) and BIC (26,606 vs. 27,777). The second offending item was item 7, ��I have felt upbeat and optimistic�� which loaded on the sadness factor in Welsch et al. This item loaded adequately on the sadness subscale but was also strongly associated with three other scales (anger, anxiety, and craving). Removal of this item produced a model that adequately fits the data (��2 [278] = 611.08, p < .0001; RMSEA =0.06, CFI = 0.94, TLI = 0.93, SRMR = 0.04), and the model's smaller AIC (25,151) and BIC (25,541) indices indicated that this 26-item model was a better model than the previous two models. Table 2 lists standardized and nonstandardized factor loadings for the 26-item measure.

This 26-item measure was used in the remaining analyses. Table 2. Standardized and Unstandardized Factor Loadings for the 26-Item Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale Measurement Invariance Consistent with the recommendations of Vandenberg and Lance (2000), the structure of the WSWS was first examined for overall equivalence of measurement (total invariance) across the three racial/ethnic groups. A multiple-group CFA was conducted in which all parameter estimates (i.e., factor loadings, item intercepts, item residual variances and covariances, factor means and variances, and factor covariances) were constrained to equality across the White, African American, and Latino subsamples. This resulted in a model with adequate fit (��2 [1032] = 1561.51, p < .0001; RMSEA =0.064, CFI = 0.

91, TLI = 0.91, SRMR = 0.09), suggestive of overall equivalence of measurement across AV-951 groups. Predictive Equivalence Because of the importance of the implications of null findings in these particular analyses (i.e., null findings are evidence against predictive bias), an analysis of the smallest detectible effect size was conducted. The analysis indicated that the smallest detectable effect (in terms of an odds ratio) was 0.67 and 1.

3% change from 22 6% to 30 1%) The percentage of control respond

3% change from 22.6% to 30.1%). The percentage of control respondents who gave the same answer showed a slight decrease (?0.5% change from 25.9% to 25.4%). Our final step in analyzing the behavioral variables focused on those variables that showed a significant difference pre- www.selleckchem.com/products/BAY-73-4506.html to postintervention for both groups in the bivariate analysis (Table 4). The question ��In the last month, have you smoked on public transportation?�� that was targeted at current and former smokers revealed a significant difference (p = .002) between groups when adjusted for age, marital status, education, work status, and smoker status: the intervention group was 1.65 times more likely to have smoked on transportation before the intervention when compared to after.

The next two outcome variables, targeted at the whole study population, were adjusted for the same factors plus gender. There was no significant difference between the groups in the number who implemented a smoking ban in the home (p = .205). There was a significant difference (p = .011) in the number who had asked someone on public transportation to stop smoking: intervention respondents were 1.24 times more likely to have asked after the intervention. The last question asked whether respondents avoided exposure to smoking. Again there was a significant difference (p = .004) between groups (intervention: 1.14 times more likely). This model adjusted for all of the above factors except smoker status��when included as a predictor variable, the difference disappeared since smokers from neither group avoided other smokers. Table 4.

Multivariate Analysis Given the changes in smoking behavior, the question arises, why did respondents change their behavior? Two questions in both the pre- and postintervention addressed this issue (data not shown). The first asked, ��Why would you quit smoking?�� Options included: to improve one��s health, to save money, on doctor��s advice, and for children��s health. Children��s health had the most significant increase from pre- to postintervention for both groups: the control group increased from 19.8% to 30.5% (p = .007) and the intervention group from 13.7% to 40.7% (p < .001). Also in the preintervention period, significantly more control respondents (p = .043) listed children��s health as a reason compared to intervention respondents. Postintervention, this trend reversed itself, although not significantly (p = .

128). The other responses to motivation for quitting were not significantly different between the two groups. The second question asked, ��Who advised you to stop smoking?�� Of the possible sources (doctors, other health professionals, friends, family, and religious clerics), only ��other health professionals�� Drug_discovery showed a significant increase from pre- to postintervention in both the control (2.0%�C24.6%, p < .001) and intervention villages (3.7%�C38.3%, p < .