More importantly, we hope that further study of the bonding inter

More importantly, we hope that further study of the bonding interactions and properties of these molecules will lead learn more to the development of new functional materials.”
“Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by molecular heterogeneity. As commonly altered genomic regions point to candidate genes involved in leukemogenesis, we used microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization and single nucleotide polymorphism profiling data of 391 AML cases to further narrow down genomic regions of interest. Targeted re-sequencing of 1000 genes located in the critical

regions was performed in a representative cohort of 50 AML samples comprising all major cytogenetic subgroups. We identified 120 missense/nonsense mutations as well as 60 insertions/deletions affecting 73 different genes (similar to 3.6 tumor-specific aberrations/AML). While

most of the newly identified alterations were non-recurrent, we observed an enrichment of mutations affecting genes involved in epigenetic regulation check details including known candidates like TET2, TET1, DNMT3A, and DNMT1, as well as mutations in the histone methyltransferases NSD1, EZH2, and MLL3. Furthermore, we found mutations in the splicing factor SFPQ and in the nonclassic regulators of mRNA processing CTCF and RAD21. These splicing-related mutations affected 10% of AML patients in a mutually exclusive manner. In conclusion, we could identify a large number of alterations in genes involved in aberrant splicing and epigenetic regulation in genomic regions commonly altered in AML, highlighting their important role in the molecular pathogenesis of AML. (Blood. 2012;120(18):e83-e92)”
“Circadian rhythms in behavior and physiology are orchestrated by a master biological clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Circadian oscillations are a cellular property, with ‘clock’

genes and their protein products forming transcription-translation feedback loops that maintain 24-hour rhythmicity. Although the expression of clock genes is thought to be ubiquitous, the function of local, this website extra-SCN timing mechanisms remains elusive. We hypothesized that extra-SCN clock genes control local temporal sensitivity to upstream modulatory signals, allowing system-specific processes to be carried out during individual, optimal times of day. To test this possibility, we examined changes in the sensitivity of immortalized GnRH neurons, GT1-7 cells, to timed stimulation by two key neuropeptides thought to trigger ovulation on the afternoon of proestrus, kisspeptin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). We noted a prominent daily rhythm of clock gene expression in this cell line. GT1-7 cells also exhibited daily changes in cellular peptide expression and GnRH secretion in response to kisspeptin and VIP stimulation.

Results: The specimens were evaluated histologically and histomor

Results: The specimens were evaluated histologically and histomorphometrically. Upon histological evaluation, no obvious differences CUDC-907 were found between the control and the treatment group. Implants showed good

integration into the bone tissue surrounding them. There were also no statistically significant differences in bone-to-implant contact and the amount of bone tissue in the immediate neighborhood of the implant at both healing periods. Conclusions: The systemic administration of ALN was not found to affect histological osseointegration of implants in animals with a hormonal status resembling that of postmenopausal healthy women. Further research will be needed to investigate this approach.”
“The bee genus Augochlorodes Moure, up to now only known from Brazil,

is recorded for the first time for Argentina. Augochlorodes politus Goncalves & Melo was found in the south of the province of Buenos Aires, mideastern Argentina, being the southernmost record for the genus. The female of A. politus is redescribed and the male described for the first time, being the second male known for this genus. The phylogenetic position of Augochlorodes among Augochlorini is briefly discussed.”
“BACKGROUND: Ann plastic spermatocytic seminoma is a rare variant this website of the conventional spermatocytic seminoma, with only 6 cases reported up to now. The anaplastic

variant contains only the medium-sized cell type, hallmarked by large-sized nucleoli, whereas the small lymphocyte-like and 3-MA giant cells typical of the conventional spermatocytic seminoma are lacking. CASE: We report herein an unusual case of a 40-year-old man with an anaplastic spermatocytic seminoma which metastasized first to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes and, something never before reported, subsequently to the lung and other organs. The immuno phenotype with c-kit and SALL4 positive and PLAP, as well OCT 3/4 negative tumor cells were identical to those of conventional spermatocytic seminoma. Cytogenetically the tumor cells showed a gain of chromosome 9, typical for spermatocytic seminoma, but simultaneously also the short arm 12p were overexpressed-an overexpression crucial to the aggressive behavior of seminomas and other nonseminomatous tumors but never before encountered in spermatocytic seminoma. CONCLUSION: The current opinion is that seminoma and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors develop from a common primitive progenitor cell, whereas spermatocytic seminomas develop from differentiated spermatogonia. The herein presented cytogenetic hybrid tumor shows that a crossover between the two different histogenetic “tracks” is possible.”
“The genome sequences of intestinal Bacteroidales strains reveal evidence of extensive horizontal gene transfer.

CONCLUSIONS Persons diagnosed as having disease affecting the ce

CONCLUSIONS. Persons diagnosed as having disease affecting the central visual field can recognize faces as well as persons with no visual disease provided that they have residual sensitivity in the anatomical fovea and show stable fixation patterns. Performance in this task is limited by the upper resolution of nonfoveal vision or image blur, whichever is worse.”
“Calcium is thought to play an important role in regulating mitochondrial function. Evidence suggests that an increase in mitochondrial calcium can augment ATP production JIB-04 clinical trial by altering the activity of calcium-sensitive mitochondrial matrix enzymes. In contrast, the entry of large amounts of

mitochondrial calcium in the setting of ischemia-reperfusion injury is thought to be a critical event in triggering cellular necrosis. For many decades, the details of how calcium entered the mitochondria remained a biological mystery. In the past few years, significant progress has been made in identifying the molecular components of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex. Here, we review how calcium enters and leaves the mitochondria, the growing insight into the topology, stoichiometry and function of the uniporter complex, and the early lessons learned from some initial mouse models that Epoxomicin in vivo genetically perturb mitochondrial calcium homeostasis.”
“Purpose of review\n\nCachexia is a progressive deterioration

of body habitus associated with certain chronic diseases (e.g., cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic heart failure, and chronic kidney disease). The aim of this article is to describe the prevalence and impact of cachexia (and precachexia) in such patients.\n\nRecent findings\n\nOwing to the wide spectrum of clinical presentation and lack of an ‘all-inclusive’ definition, it is difficult to estimate the true prevalence of cachexia. Perhaps

2% of the population suffer from precachexia Dinaciclib (characterized by weight loss in association with a chronic disease). The significant increase in obesity of the general population (which can mask significant muscle wasting) confounds such simple estimates of the true prevalence of cachexia. In contrast, a multidimensional characterization of the cachectic state (including weight loss, reduced food intake, and systemic inflammation) may be more meaningful in terms of altered clinical outcomes. Such a multidimensional view of cachexia has been shown to impact on patients’ survival and quality of life and therefore constitutes a major public health issue.\n\nSummary\n\nThere is a high prevalence of (pre)cachexia in patients with chronic diseases. The cachexia syndrome is probably less frequent but has a significant impact in terms of morbidity and mortality.”
“The model binding of the glycopeptide antibiotic teicoplanin (Teic) from Actinoplanes teichomyceticus, immobilized on magnetic microspheres, to D-Ala-D-Ala terminus peptides was assessed using microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) with continuous frontal analysis (FA).

Diagnostic criteria and methods are not well delineated Objectiv

Diagnostic criteria and methods are not well delineated. Objective Diagnostic criteria for hypersensitivity click here reactions after metallic device implantation are evaluated in this study by a multinational group of patch testers using Thyssen’s previously published criteria. Methods A total

of 119 dermatologists at the 2012 European Contact Dermatitis Society and 2013 American Contact Dermatitis Society meetings answered a survey regarding their opinions on topics relating to metal hypersensitivity. Conclusions Four major and 5 minor diagnostic criteria emerged. Approximately 80% of respondents found the following criteria useful (major criteria): chronic dermatitis beginning weeks to months after metallic implantation, eruption overlying the metal implant, positive patch test to a metal component of the implant, and complete clearing after removal of the potentially allergenic implant. Minor criteria ( smaller than 61% of respondents) were as follows: systemic allergic dermatitis reaction, MCC950 cost therapy-resistant dermatitis, morphology consistent with dermatitis, histology consistent with allergic contact dermatitis, and a positive in vitro test to metals (eg, lymphocyte

transformation test). In the challenging situation such as a symptomatic or failing orthopedic device, applying these 4 major criteria and the 5 supportive minor criteria may be useful for guiding decision making.”
“Phytosteryl ester synthesized with pinolenic acid (PLA) from pine nut oil is expected to have features of both phytosterol and PLA. In this study, lipase from Candida rugosa (CRL) was immobilized and then used to optimize conditions for synthesis of phytosteryl ester containing PLA. Lewatit VP OC 1600, a macroporous hydrophobic resin, was selected as the best carrier,

and the optimum condition for the immobilization of CRL was established. With immobilized CRL prepared, learn more synthesis of phytosteryl ester with fatty acid from pine nut oil was carried out. Parameters investigated were temperature, molar ratio (phytosterol to fatty acid), enzyme loading, and vacuum. Optimum conditions for synthesis of phytosteryl ester were a temperature of 60 degrees C, molar ratio of 1:4, enzyme loading of 10% (based on the total weight of the substrate), and pressure of 80 kPa. The maximum conversion of phytosteryl ester was ca. 93 mol % at the optimum condition.”
“Upper gastrointestinal bleeding refers to bleeding that arises from the gastrointestinal tract proximal to the ligament of Treitz. The primary reason for gastrointestinal bleeding associated with hepatocellular carcinoma is rupture of a varicose vein owing to pericardial hypotension. We report a rare case of gastrointestinal bleeding with hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient who presented with recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding. The initial diagnosis was gastric cancer with metastasis to the multiple lymph nodes of the lesser curvature.

Histological observation revealed the cell length of srt7 mutant

Histological observation revealed the cell length of srt7 mutant roots was significantly shorter than that of wild-type roots. Genetic analysis indicated the short root phenotype was controlled check details by a single recessive nuclear gene. The SRT7 gene was mapped to a 20-kb interval between the markers STS6 and STS7 on chromosome 4 by a map-based cloning method. Sequencing of the six predicted genes in this region found that all of the three allelic mutants contained a 1-bp or 2-bp deletion in the

same gene encoding a putative membrane-bound endo-1,4-beta-glucanase. The SRT7 gene was expressed ubiquitously, with higher levels of transcript accumulation in roots at different developmental stages. However, no difference was found in the SRT7 transcription level between the mutant and wild type. Collectively, these results indicate the endo-1,4-beta-glucanase encoding gene (LOC_Os04g41970) is likely the candidate for SRT7 that functions posttranscriptionally in rice root elongation.”
“The liver is a central organ that controls systemic energy homeostasis and nutrient metabolism. Dietary carbohydrates and lipids, and fatty acids

derived from adipose tissue are delivered to QNZ cost the liver, and utilized for gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and ketogenesis, which are tightly regulated by hormonal and neural signals. Hepatic lipogenesis is activated primarily by insulin that is secreted from the pancreas after a high-carbohydrate meal. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) are major transcriptional regulators that induce key lipogenic enzymes to promote lipogenesis in the liver. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c

is activated by insulin through complex signaling cascades that control SREBP-1c at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels. Carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein is activated by glucose independently of insulin. Here, the authors attempt to summarize the current understanding of the molecular mechanism for the transcriptional this website regulation of hepatic lipogenesis, focusing on recent studies that explore the signaling pathways controlling SREBPs and ChREBP.”
“Development of screening programs in patients with high risk of developing esophageal cancer, as well as recent advances in diagnostic endoscopic techniques, have allowed clinicians to improve early detection of esophageal malignant tumors. Surgical resection, although currently considered as the standard of care for patients with early stage esophageal cancer, is sometimes contra-indicated. In this subset of patients, endoscopic resection techniques including endoscopic mucosa! resections (EMR), thermal or non-thermal laser, or cryoablation are amongst the well-recognized modalities safely and efficiently used by gastroenterologists.

In the present study, we present further evidence that IGFBP-3 in

In the present study, we present further evidence that IGFBP-3 inhibits cell proliferation through the induction of cell cycle arrest in the same cell line. Induction of IGFBP-3 in MCF-7 cells inhibited cell proliferation whereas selleck chemical presence of small interfering RNA against IGFBP-3 abolished cell inhibitory effect of IGFBP-3, suggesting that the observed growth inhibition is specific. Flow cytometry analysis showed that induced expression of IGFBP-3 led to an arrest of the cell cycle in G1-S phase. Western immunoblot analysis showed a significant decrease

in the levels of the cell cycle-regulated proteins such as cyclin D1, cyclin D3, cyclin E, cyclin A, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, CDK4, retinoblastoma protein (pRB), and phosph-pRB, suggesting a possible mechanism for cell cycle arrest by IGFBP-3. Northern blot analysis and real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated a significant decrease in gene expression of cyclin Gamma-secretase inhibitor D1. Additional phosphorylation assay showed that IGFBP-3 decreased the phosphorylation activity of CDK2 and CDK4. These results show that cellular production of IGFBP-3 leads to G1 cell cycle arrest with inhibition of CDK2 and CDK4. Taken together, IGFBP-3 exerts its growth inhibitory action through not only induction

of apoptosis but also the G1 cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cells.”
“Background Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) has a significant impact on quality of life (QoL).\n\nObjectives To evaluate QoL in NF1 according to phenotype from the viewpoint of children and proxy.\n\nMethods One hundred and forty families with a child aged between 8 and 16 years, seen consecutively at the National Academic Paediatric Referral Centre for NF1 for a phenotype evaluation, were contacted by mail. Families agreeing to participate were sent two questionnaires, the DISABKIDS for children and proxy and the cartoon version of the Children’s Dermatology Life Quality

Index (CDLQI). QoL scores were compared with those in other major diseases and were analysed according to age, gender and phenotype.\n\nResults Eighty families agreed to participate, and 79 returned the questionnaires. Using DISABKIDS, NF1 had a higher impact on health-related QoL than asthma (mean +/- SD 75.18 +/- 18.22 vs. 79.78 +/- 13.41; P = 0.005). The total score was more altered when assessed by proxy than by children (71.20 +/- 17.94 vs. 75.18 +/- 18.22; P = 0.002). Orthopaedic manifestations, learning disabilities and presence of at least two plexiform neurofibromas were independently associated with a higher impact (P < 0 01). The CDLQI score was slightly altered (11.3%). Dermatological signs, such as cafe-au-lait spots and freckling, did not have a significant impact.

Each was defined as present before 12 months (existing syndrome)

Each was defined as present before 12 months (existing syndrome) or onset within 12 months (new syndrome) prior to BPS/IC onset. Retrospectively, we sought associations between prior hysterectomy and existing FSSs. Prospectively, we studied associations of existing and new syndromes with

subsequent hysterectomy. Logistic regression analyses adjusted for AZD7762 inhibitor age, race, menopause and education. Results: The retrospective study showed prior hysterectomy (N = 63) to be associated with existing CPP and the presence of multiple existing FSSs. The prospective study revealed that 30/249 women with a uterus at baseline (12%) underwent hysterectomy in early BPS/IC This procedure was associated with new CPP (OR 6.0; CI 2.0, 18.2), new IBS (OR 5.4; CI 13, 223), and existing FSSs

(OR 3.9; CI 1.1, 13.9). Conclusion: Accounting for CPP and IBS, the presence of multiple FSSs (most without pelvic pain) was a separate, independent risk factor for hysterectomy in early BPS/IC. This suggests that patient features in addition to abdominopelvic abnormalities led to this procedure. Until other populations are assessed, a prudent approach to patients who are contemplating hysterectomy (and possibly other surgeries) for pain and who have IBS or numerous FSSs is first to try alternative therapies including treatment of the FSSs. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Late blight (Septoria apiicola) reduces both yield and quality of fresh market and processing

find more celery. Field trials were conducted over 4 site-years to evaluate the effect of nitrogen (N) rate and foliar calcium (Ca) fertilization on the development of late blight and yield on celery grown on muck soils, which have a high organic matter (OM) content. A treatment with the protectant fungicide chlorothalonil was included to determine if fertilizer could replace fungicide application in celery production. There was a cultivar x site-year interaction for each of the disease and yield variables. Repeated application of chlorothalonil fungicide reduced late blight and generally increased plant height, weight and marketable yield. The rate of N applied had a small effect on late blight, which varied among site-years. Area under the disease progress curve decreased with increasing rate of N at phosphatase inhibitor library both sites in 2008. Similarly, an increasing rate of N resulted in an increase in yield in one of four site-years. Application of Ca did not affect late blight severity and increased yield in only 1 site-year. There was a negative correlation between late blight severity and yield. Tissue N concentrations varied among the treatments at sites with a relatively low OM content, but not at the high OM sites. The treatments had no effect on Ca tissue concentrations. Application of N and Ca alone did not adequately control late blight, but there was a slight reduction in late blight severity with increasing rates of N.

Here we attempt to improve the antibacterial activity and cytotox

Here we attempt to improve the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity profile of PBD-containing conjugates by extension of dimer linkers and replacement of one PBD unit with phenyl-substituted or benzo-fused heterocycles that facilitate non-covalent interactions with duplex DNA.\n\nDNase I footprinting was used to identify high-affinity DNA binding sites. A staphylococcal gene microarray was used to assess epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus JQ1 molecular weight 16 phenotypes induced by PBD conjugates. Molecular dynamics simulations were employed to investigate the accommodation of compounds within the DNA helix.\n\nIncreasing the length of the linker in PBD dimers led

to a progressive reduction in antibacterial activity, but not in their cytotoxic capacity. Complex patterns of DNA binding were noted for extended PBD dimers. Modelling of DNA strand cross-linking by PBD dimers indicated distortion of the helix. A majority (26 of 43) of PBD-biaryl conjugates possessed potent antibacterial activity with little or

no helical distortion and a more favourable cytotoxicity profile. Bactericidal activity of PBD-biaryl conjugates was determined by inability to excise covalently bound drug molecules from bacterial duplex DNA.\n\nPBD-biaryl conjugates have a superior antibacterial profile compared with PBD dimers such as ELB-21. We have identified six PBD-biaryl conjugates as potential drug development candidates.”
“Glutamate acts on postsynaptic glutamate receptors to mediate excitatory communication between neurons. The discovery that additional presynaptic find more glutamate receptors can modulate neurotransmitter release has added complexity to the way we view glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Here we review evidence of a physiological role for presynaptic glutamate receptors in neurotransmitter release. We compare the physiological

roles of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors in short- and long-term regulation of synaptic transmission. Furthermore, GW-572016 mouse we discuss the physiological conditions that are necessary for their activation, the source of the glutamate that activates them, their mechanisms of action and their involvement in higher brain function.”
“Upregulation of Zip14 contributes to hepatic zinc (Zn) and non-transferrin-bound iron (Fe) uptake during infection and inflammation. We investigated whether this essential metal transporter is also involved in hepatic cadmium (Cd) uptake under these conditions. An injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), turpentine oil (Tur) and n-hexane (Hex) resulted in an decrease in plasma Zn and Fe concentrations to 25-50% and an increase in hepatic concentrations of both metals to 150-200% of control mice. LPS significantly increased plasma interleukin (IL)-6 levels more rapidly than Tur or Hex. Tur or Hex significantly increased hepatic Zip14 mRNA expression and decreased ferroportin 1 mRNA expression following continuous increase of IL-6 level.

In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of de

In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of dedifferentiation-derived cells. Epidermal sheets eliminated of basal stem cells were transplanted onto the skin wounds in 47 nude athymic (BALB/c-nu/nu) mice. After 5 days, cells negative for CK10 but positive for CK19 and beta(1)-integrin emerged at the wound-neighbouring side of the epidermal sheets. Furthermore, the percentages of CK19 and beta(1)-integrin+ cells detected by flow cytometric analysis were increased after grafting (P < 0.01) and compound inhibitor CK10+ cells in grafted sheets decreased

(P < 0.01). Then we isolated these cells on the basis of rapid adhesion to type IV collagen and found that there were 4.56% adhering cells (dedifferentiation-derived cells) in the grafting group within 10 min. The in vitro phenotypic assays showed that the expressions of CK19, beta(1)-integrin, Oct4 Momelotinib molecular weight and Nanog in dedifferentiation-derived cells were remarkably higher than those in the control group (differentiated epidermal cells) (P < 0.01). In addition, the results of the functional investigation of dedifferentiation-derived cells demonstrated: (1) the numbers of colonies consisting of 5-10 cells and greater than 10 cells were increased 5.9-fold and 6.7-fold, respectively, as compared with that in the control (P < 0.01); (2) more cells were in S phase and G2/M phase of the cell cycle (proliferation index values were 21.02% in control group,

45.08% in group of dedifferentiation); (3) the total days of culture (28 days versus 130 days), the passage number of cells (3 passages versus 20 passages) and assumptive total cell output (1 x 105 cells versus 1 x 1012 cells) were all significantly increased and (4) dedifferentiation-derived PFTα cells, as well as epidermal stem cells, were capable of regenerating a skin equivalent, but differentiated

epidermal cells could not. These results suggested that the characteristics of dedifferentiation-derived cells cultured in vitro were similar to epidermal stem cells. This study may also offer a new approach to yield epidermal stem cells for wound repair and regeneration.”
“K-Ras4B, a small GTPase and a key oncogene, plays a central role in the early steps of signal transduction from activated receptor tyrosine kinases by recruiting its downstream effectors to the cell membrane. Specific posttranslational modifications of K-Ras4B, including the addition of C-terminal farnesyl and methyl groups, mediate its proper membrane localization and signaling activity. The mechanism and molecular determinants underlying this selective membrane localization and molecular interactions with its many regulators and downstream effectors are largely unknown. Preparative amounts of the post-translationally processed K-Ras4B protein are necessary to carry out structural, functional, and cell biological studies of this important oncogene.

tivelae was 77 +/- 1 7 mm and the mean length of the Amiantis umb

tivelae was 77 +/- 1 7 mm and the mean length of the Amiantis umbonella was 39 84 +/- 8.93 mm. Clams in the mid and low tidal zones were more infested There was no significant relationship between clam length – crab width (R(2)

= 0.28) The mean fecundity of crabs was 2517 +/- 864 eggs Infection caused a reduction of flesh weight of clams. There was no significant correlation between the frequency of crabs’ occurrence and the temporal variability of water temperature, Selleck BAY 80-6946 salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH in different months This study provides the first report of the distribution of pea crabs A tivelae in A. umbonella, a new clam host record in Iran”
“Krill growth and physiological condition were measured during the Baseline Research on Oceanography, Krill and the Environment – West (BROKE-West) large-scale survey of the Western Indian Ocean sector (30-80 degrees E)

of the Southern Ocean. Krill growth and condition were related to sea-surface temperature (SST) and Chlorophyll a levels. Estimates check details of Antarctic krill growth were obtained using the Instantaneous Growth Rate (IGR) technique, which reflects in situ growth of krill during the intermoult period prior to capture. A total of 10,362 krill were incubated in the IGR experiments conducted on board the research vessel. The average growth rate ranged between 1.8-9.6% of body length throughout the study area (n=1557). Juvenile and sub-adult krill showed higher growth rates compared to adults. Growth decreased with size for

krill of all maturity classes, with the largest krill (total length >50 mm) expressing negative growth. On average, mean growth was higher (6.5%) in the western section (30-55 degrees E) of the study area compared to the east (56-80 degrees E) (4.2%). In the western section significantly higher growth rates were recorded for krill sampled close to the ice-edge (8.4%) compared to the open ocean (4.2%), which may be due to the presence of phytoplankton blooms associated with the retreating sea ice. However, in the eastern sector higher GANT61 in vitro growth rates occurred in krill from the open ocean compared to the krill caught in areas closer to the coast (5.4% and 2.6% respectively). Krill condition was measured in terms of digestive gland size as a percentage of carapace length. The size of krill digestive gland relative to carapace length ranged from 0.46 to 0.66 (n=2403). A significant positive correlation was found between growth rate and size of the digestive gland (r(2)=0.7), indicating that growth is related to feeding events. Both digestive gland size and krill growth significantly increased with increasing Chlorophyll a levels and declining SST. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.