28 (the lowest 10% of the population) at either LS or FN; high BM

28 (the lowest 10% of the population) at either LS or FN; high BMD subjects had BMD z-score ≥ +1.0 (the highest 15% of the population) at one or both skeletal sites [17, 18]. BIBF 1120 Height was measured using a wall-mount stadiometer and weight with an electronic scale. HKOS prospective cohort (for

replication) This random population is also a part of the on-going HKSC database with BMD (n = 2,509) and vertebral fracture (n = 1,746) data. A total of 1,794 unrelated postmenopausal women (≥45 years) and 715 men (≥50 years), without receiving osteoporosis treatment or any drug known to influence bone metabolism, were included as described previously [19]. Vertebral fractures were assessed by digital measurements of morphologic changes on a lateral radiograph of the thoracolumbar spine. A vertebral body was considered fractured if there was a reduction of at least 3 SD in anterior, VX-680 manufacturer mid or posterior ratios compared with normative means [20]. The information on vertebral

fracture was available for a total of 1,746 subjects. All subjects gave informed consent. The study was approved by the institutional review board of the Hong Kong West Cluster Hospitals of the Hospital Authority and the University of Hong Kong and was conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki. SNP genotyping A total of 10 SNPs in the POSTN gene were selected for genotyping: seven tSNPs with reported minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.05 in Chinese and three potentially functional SNPs located in exons. The tSNPs were identified using data from the phase II HapMap CHB (r 2 ≥ 0.8). SNPs for HKSC extreme cohort were genotyped using the high-throughput Sequenom MassARRAY platform (Sequenom, San Diego, CA, USA). DNA from high and low BMD subjects were randomly assigned to the 96-well plates and genotyping performed

with sample status TGF-beta signaling blinded. Genotyping was repeated in 5% of the samples for verification: Data were confirmed to have an error rate <0.1%. The TaqMan system (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) was used for SNP genotyping in the verification and replication steps. Statistical methods Both single marker and haplotype association analyses were performed using the PLINK software [21]. Any SNP with call rate <90%, MAF <0.01 or Hardy–Weinberg Aldehyde dehydrogenase equilibrium (HWE) P < 0.001 was excluded. The binary logistic regression was used to test the association between each SNP and BMD variation of the HKSC extreme cohort and vertebral fractures under the additive model. The association of SNP with BMD variation in the replication cohort was detected by the linear regression analysis. In the block-based haplotype association analysis, the haplotype global test is an omnibus test (if there are H haplotypes, a single test with H-1 degrees of freedom is conducted). The haplotype-specific test evaluates each specific haplotype versus all other haplotypes (i.e., tests with 1 degrees of freedom).

Patients with intermediate risk underwent LRP or


Patients with intermediate risk underwent LRP or

RALP . Anesthetic protocol The patients did not receive premedication. In the TIVA-TCI group, anaesthesia was induced with propofol (DiprivanTM, ASTRA-Zeneca, Milano, Italy) 6 μg ml−1 and remifentanyl (UltivaTM, GlaxoSmith-Kline AB, Verona, Italy) 0.4-1 μg kg−1 min, simultaneously Dinaciclib price administered using two separate modules of a continuous computer-assisted TCI system. Anaesthesia was maintained with propofol 4 μg ml−1 and remifentanil 0.25 μg Kg−1 min. This infusion was modified by 0.05 μg kg−1 min steps according to analgesic needs. In the BAL group, anaesthesia was induced with midazolam (Hameln pharmaceuticals Gmbh, Hameln, Germany) 0.1 mg kg−1 and fentanyl (FentanestTM, Pftzer, Latina, Italy) 1.5 μg kg−1 Anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane (SevoraneTM, Abbott, Latina, Italy) 2.0% , oxygen 40% and air 70% with positive pressure ventilation in a circle system, in order to achieve normocapnia. In both groups, cisatracurium besylate (NimbexTM, Glaxo Smith Kline) 0.1-0.5 mg kg−1 was given to facilitate orotracheal Danusertib purchase intubation with a cuffed tube, followed by the continuous application of 0.06-0.12 mg kg−1 h−1

via infusion pumps. Pneumoperitoneum was created by intraperitoneal insufflation of CO2 with an insufflation pressure of 13–15 mmHg and patient in the supine position. Patients Epacadostat order were then placed in the steep Trendelenburg position (30° from horizontal). Intraperitoneal

pressure was maintained at 15 mmHg during the induced pneumoperitoneum. A routine anaesthesia monitoring was performed on all patients (Table 1). Table 1 Clinical characteristics and peri-operative data of patients with prostate cancer Chloroambucil who underwent surgery with TIVA-TCI or BAL anaesthesia   TIVA-TCI (n. 54) BAL (n. 48) P Clinical data          Age (yrs) 60.66 (5.91) 62.16 (6.23) 0.31    Venous thromboembolism risk          Highest risk 54 (100%) 48 (100%) 1    Prostate cancer risk*          Intermediate-risk 26 (48.1%) 30 (62.5%)      High-risk 28 (51.8%) 18 (37.5%) 0.17    ASA, n (%):          I 4 (7.4%) 6 (12.5%)      II 50 (92.6%) 42 (87.5%) 0.39    Histological grade of cancer          G2 (Gleason 5–6) 15 (27.8%) 14 (29.2)      G3 (Gleason 7–10) 39 (72.2%) 34 (70.8%) 0.88    pT, n (%)          2 30 (55.6%) 32 (66.7%) 0.25    3 24 (44.4%) 16 (33.3%)      pN, n (%) #          0 17 (85.0%) 24 (96.0%) 0.20    1 3 (15.0%) 1 (4.0%)   Peri-operative data          Type of surgery          LRP 36 (66.7%) 34 (70.8%) 0.65    RALP 18 (33.3%) 14 (29.2%)      Time of anaesthesia (min) 107.5 (16.8) 101.4 (26.2) 0.26    Blood loss (ml) 123.3 (131.1) 121.4 (110.6) 0.81    Total amount of crystalloid received (ml) 468.5 (110.21) 496.8 (198.5) 0.27    Intra-operative body temperature 36.2 (0.3) 36.1 (0.2) 0.83    Intra-operative MAP (mmHg) 104.6 (10.5) 106.2 (10.2) 0.61    Intra-operative SpO2 (%) 96.7 (0.9) 97.8 (1.8) 0.

As shown in Figure 4A, the

We detected the effect of XAV939 on cell cycle in SH-SY5Y, SK-N-SH and IMR-32 cells. As shown in Figure 4A, the number of SH-SY5Y cells in the G0/G1 phase decreased, while those in the S and G2/M phase both increased after XAV939 treatment (Figure 4A). At 24 h after treatment, 58.25% of the DMSO-treated SH-SY5Y cells were at G0/G1, 28.02% at S and 13.73% at G2/M (Figure 4B, R428 P < 0.05). In comparison, 48.38% of the XAV939-treated SH-SY5Y cells were at G0/G1, 33.68% at S and 17.94% at G2/M (Figure 4B, P < 0.05). This trend was continued at later

time points (Figure 4B). Figure 4C, E indicated the cell cycle of SK-N-SH and IMR-32 cells respectively, and showed the same tendency with that of SH-SY5Y cells (Figure 4D, F, P < 0.05). This suggested that TNKS1 plays a role in cell cycle regulation and that TNKS1 inhibition induces an accumulation of NB cell lines at G2/M and S phase of the cell cycle. Figure 4 TNKS1 inhibition induces G2/M accumulation in SH-SY5Y, SK-N-SH and IMR-32 cells. A, C, E. The representative diagrams of distribution of stained SH-SY5Y, SK-N-SH and IMR-32 cells in control group and XAV939 group. B, D, F. The bar graph of the average percent cells of G0/G1, S and G2/M phases in control Adriamycin manufacturer group and XAV939 group for SH-SY5Y, SK-N-SH and IMR-32 cells respectively (P < 0.05). TNKS1 inhibition reduces the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins It has been reported that XAV939 could inhibit the proliferation

of DLD-1 cells growth by attenuating the expression of Wnt signaling [14]. Western blot was performed to determine if TNKS1 inhibition induces apoptosis in SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells and if so whether Wnt/β-catenin signalling and Bcl-2 plays a role. TNKS1 in SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells was inhibited by XAV939 of 1 and 0.5 μM, or by specific shRNA to TNKS1. PI3K Inhibitor Library manufacturer Following inhibition

of TNKS1 in SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells, protein levels of Bcl-2 were both reduced (P < 0.05, Figure 5A, B; P < 0.01, Figure 5C, D). This suggests that TNKS1 Tolmetin inhibition might induce apoptosis in NB cell lines in part by reducing expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. After treating with XAV939 or specific shRNA to TNKS1, we noted that the accumulation of β-catenin reduced as well as Cyclin D1 and c-Myc in both NB cell lines (Figure 5A, C). Quantification analysis revealed these results (P < 0.05, Figure 5B, D). As a result, the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 also decreased. Figure 5 TNKS1 inhibition altered the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. A, C. Western blot analysis of β-catenin, Cyclin D1, c-Myc and Bcl-2 proteins level in SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells untransfected, XAV939 treatment, transfected with TNKS1 shRNA or control shRNA. β-actin was loading control. B, D. The bar graph showed mean ± SD of the ratio interest proteins/β-actin band intensity obtained by pooling the results from 3 independent experiments in SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells respectively.

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95(22):13324–13329PubMed Rees D, Noctor G,

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95(22):13324–13329PubMed Rees D, Noctor G, Ruban AV, Crofts J, Young A, Horton P (1992) pH dependent chlorophyll fluorescence quenching in spinach thylakoids from light treated or dark adapted leaves. Photosynth Res 31(1):11–19 Robert B (2009) Resonance Raman spectroscopy. Photosynth Res 101(2–3):147–155PubMed Ruban AV, Walters RG, Horton P (1992) The molecular mechanism

of the control of excitation energy dissipation in chloroplast membranes inhibition of pH-dependent quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. FEBS Lett 309(2):175–179PubMed Ruban AV, Berera R, Ilioaia C, van Stokkum click here IHM, Kennis JTM, Pascal AA, van Amerongen H, Robert B, Horton P, Ferrostatin-1 solubility dmso Grondelle RV (2007) Identification of a mechanism of photoprotective energy dissipation in higher plants. Nature 450(7169):575–578PubMed Ruban AV, Johnson MP, Duffy BAY 11-7082 purchase CDP (2012) The photoprotective molecular switch in the photosystem II antenna. Biochim Biophys Acta 1817(1):167–181PubMed Schneider AR, Geissler PL (2013) Coexistence between fluid and crystalline phases of proteins in photosynthetic membranes. Preprint arXiv/1302.6323v1

[cond-mat.soft] Schreiber U (2004) Pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM) fluorometry and saturation pulse method: an overview. Chlorophyll a luorescence: a signature of photosynthesis. Springer, Dordrect, The Netherlands, pp 279–319 Schreiber U, Schliwa U, Bilger W (1986) Continuous recording of photochemical and non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching with a new type of modulation fluorometer. Sclareol Photosynth Res 10(1):51–62 Schreiber U, Bilger W, Neubauer

C (1994) Chlorophyll fluorescence as a nonintrusive indicator for rapid assessment of in vivo photosynthesis. In: Schulze ED, Caldwell MM (eds) Ecophysiology of photosynthesis. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 49–70 Schuldiner SS, Rottenberg HH, Avron MM (1972) Determination of pH in chloroplasts. 2. Fluorescent amines as a probe for the determination of pH in chloroplasts. FEBS J 25(1):64–70 Staehelin LA (2003) Chloroplast structure: from chlorophyll granules to supra-molecular architecture of thylakoid membranes. Photosynth Res 76(1–3):185–196PubMed Takizawa K, Cruz JA, Kanazawa A, Kramer DM (2007) The thylakoid proton motive force in vivo. Quantitative, non-invasive probes, energetics, and regulatory consequences of light-induced pmf. Biochim Biophys Acta 1767(10):1233–1244PubMed Terazono Y, Kodis G, Bhushan K, Zaks J, Madden C, Moore AL, Moore TA, Fleming GR, Gust D (2011) Mimicking the role of the antenna in photosynthetic photoprotection. J Am Chem Soc 133(9):2916–2922PubMed Tian L, Farooq S, van Amerongen H (2013) Probing the picosecond kinetics of the photosystem II core complex in vivo.

J Biol Chem 2004, 279:9634–9641 PubMedCrossRef 18 Zanassi P, Pao

J Biol Chem 2004, 279:9634–9641.PubMedCrossRef 18. Zanassi P, Paolillo M, Feliciello

A, Avvedimento EV, Gallo V, Schinelli S: cAMP-dependent protein kinase induces cAMP-response element-binding protein phosphorylation via an intracellular calcium release/ERK-dependent pathway in striatal neurons. J Biol Chem 2001, 276:11487–11495.PubMedCrossRef 19. Ninomiya-Tsuji J, Kishimoto K, Hiyama A, Inoue J-I, Cao Z, Matsumoto K: The kinase TAK1 can activate the NIK-IκB as well as the MAP kinase cascade in the IL-1 signalling pathway. Nature 1999, 398:252–256.PubMedCrossRef 20. Shuto T, Xu H, Wang B, Han J, Kai H, Gu X-X, Murphy TF, Lim DJ, Li J-D: Activation of NF-κB by nontypeable Cediranib chemical structure Hemophilus influenzae is mediated by toll-like receptor 2-TAK1-dependent NIK-IKKα/β-IκBα and MKK3/6-p38 MAP kinase signaling HM781-36B in vivo pathways in epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001, 98:8774–8779.PubMedCrossRef 21. Archer KA, Roy CR: MyD88-dependent responses involving toll-like receptor 2 are important for protection and clearance of Legionella

pneumophila in a mouse model of Legionnaires’ disease. Infect Immun 2006, 74:3325–3333.PubMedCrossRef 22. Hawn TR, Smith KD, Aderem A, Skerrett SJ: Myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88)- and toll-like receptor 2-deficient mice are susceptible to infection with aerosolized Legionella pneumophila . J Infect Dis 2006, 193:1693–1702.PubMedCrossRef 23. Newton C, McHugh S, Widen R, Nakachi N, Klein T, Friedman H: Induction of interleukin-4 (IL-4) by legionella pneumophila infection in BALB/c mice and regulation of tumor necrosis Carbohydrate factor alpha, IL-6, and IL-1β. Infect Immun 2000, 68:5234–5240.PubMedCrossRef 24. Im J, Jeon JH, Cho MK, Woo SS, Kang S-S, Yun C-H, Lee

K, Chung DK, Han SH: Induction of IL-8 expression by bacterial flagellin is mediated click here through lipid raft formation and intracellular TLR5 activation in A549 cells. Mol Immunol 2009, 47:614–622.PubMedCrossRef 25. Hawn TR, Berrington WR, Smith IA, Uematsu S, Akira S, Aderem A, Smith KD, Skerrett SJ: Altered inflammatory responses in TLR5-deficient mice infected with Legionella pneumonia . J Immunol 2007, 179:6981–6987.PubMed 26. Shin S, Case CL, Archer KA, Nogueira CV, Kobayashi KS, Flavell RA, Roy CR, Zamboni DS: Type IV secretion-dependent activation of host MAP kinases induces an increased proinflammatory cytokine response to Legionella pneumophila . PLoS Pathog 2008, 4:e1000220.PubMedCrossRef 27. McHugh SL, Yamamoto Y, Klein TW, Friedman H: Murine macrophages differentially produce proinflammatory cytokines after infection with virulent vs. avirulent Legionella pneumophila . J Leukoc Biol 2000, 67:863–868.PubMed 28. Neild AL, Roy CR: Legionella reveal dendritic cell functions that facilitate selection of antigens for MHC class II presentation. Immunity 2003, 18:813–823.PubMedCrossRef 29.

A 1,468 bp DNA fragment corresponding to the downstream region of

A 1,468 bp DNA fragment corresponding to the downstream region of ohrR was amplified using the primers (AGCTCTAGAGCACCTGCAG; introduces an XbaI restriction site in place of ohrR stop codon) and (CAGCGCGTGTGGCGGCG). This amplicon was digested with XbaI and NsiI (genuine site) and cloned into pK18mobsacB vector [51] between the XbaI and PstI sites, giving pD3001. pD3083 and pD3001

were linearised with XbaI and ligated in BTSA1 mouse order to assemble ohrR-upstream and -downstream sequences. Then pGEMTeasy vector was deleted through an EcoRI digest, giving pD4116, and the GmR cassette of p34SGm [52] was inserted into the XbaI site, giving pD4244. This final construction carries the ohr-ohrR region where the ohrR open reading frame is replaced by a GmR cassette; it was introduced into S. meliloti Rm1021 strain by triparental Cilengitide research buy mating and recombinants were selected for on MSY medium containing gentamycin and sucrose. Double crossing over recombinants were identified as neomycin sensitive strains and confirmed by PCR. The mutation

was transduced into S. meliloti Rm1021 strain using ΦM12 [53], yielding R6.48. Inactivation of ohr A 4 kb chromosomal DNA fragment containing ohr and ohrR genes was amplified by PCR using the primers (GATCGGCCTCGACCCATACG) and (CAGCGCGTGTGGCGGCG) and cloned into pGEMTeasy vector. The insert was recovered with EcoRI and transferred to the same site on pK18mobsacB vector. The aminophylline ohr open reading frame was then inactivated INK1197 mw by introducing into the unique NotI site the GmR cassette from pBBR1-MCS5 digested with NotI. The resulting plasmid pD8657 was introduced into Rm1021 strain and double crossing events were selected as before and confirmed by PCR. The mutation was transduced into Rm1021 strain using ΦM12, yielding R8.39. Construction of an ohr::GmR , ΔohrR strain pD4116 carries the entire

ohr sequence and a deletion of ohrR. The ohr gene was disrupted by introducing in its unique NotI site the GmR resistance cassette from pBBR1-MCS5 recovered through a NotI digest. The resulting pD5333was conjugated into Rm1021 strain and double crossing overs were selected as previously described and confirmed by PCR. Transduction of the mutations into Rm1021strain yielded R7.15. Construction of ohr::lacZ, ohrR::uidA into a wild type genetic background The 4 kb chromosomal fragment amplified for ohr inactivation contains two SalI sites near the 3′end of ohr and ohrR genes respectively. It was cleaved with SalI and the 980 bp DNA fragment containing the 5′ regions of ohr and ohrR was introduced into the XhoI site of pTH1705 vector (not replicative in S. meliloti) [54]. In the resulting pD5455 plasmid two transcriptional fusions are generated: ohr::lacZ and ohrR::uidA. pD5455 was introduced into Rm1021 strain by triparental mating.

This displacement permeabilises the Gram negative outer membrane

This displacement permeabilises the Gram negative outer membrane to allow the polymyxins, or other cationic peptides, to form pores [18]. It should be noted, however, that the use of polymyxins in clinical settings has been restricted to use only where drug resistant pathogens have been encountered. This is due to the toxicity, primarily nephro- and neuro-toxicity,

associated with its use [19], although this toxicity has been suggested to be dose dependent [20]. Nonetheless, the polymyxins are, in many cases, the only antibiotics capable of overcoming specific drug resistant pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii in cystic fibrosis patients (for reviews VRT752271 clinical trial see [21–23]). For this reason the polymyxins cannot be ignored, but strategies that could reduce the dose needed for these antibiotics to be effective are highly desirable. A number of studies have investigated the consequences of combining various antibiotics with polymyxins. Antimicrobial agents such as miconazole [24], rifampicin [25, 26] meropenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin-clavulanic acid, imipenem, amikacin, and gentamicin [27] ciprofloxacin [28] trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin [29], to name but a few, have been click here the focus of studies to assess if they can work synergistically with polymyxins (also see Yahav et. al., for a review of compounds

synergistic with polymyxin E [30]). To date the only lantibiotic to have been investigated in this way is nisin, which displays synergy Ribonucleotide reductase with polymyxin B and polymyxin E against Listeria and E. coli[31, 32]. Nisin has also been shown to function synergistically when combined with polymyxin E (and clarithromycin) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa[33]. Combination studies have also recently revealed that lacticin 3147 and the lactoperoxidase system (LPOS) successfully inhibited growth of Cronobacter spp. in rehydrated infant Poziotinib in vitro formula [34]. Lacticin 3147, like nisin, is a food grade bactericidal agent obtained from the GRAS

organism Lactococcus lactis. Notably, however, it differs from nisin with respect to its target specificity and its greater potency against a number of species [10]. Also the mechanism of action contrasts from the single nisin peptide, in that it requires the interaction of two peptides, Ltnα and Ltnβ, for optimal bactericidal activity. Here, we report the first study to investigate whether synergy can occur between polymyxin(s) and a two-component lantibiotic. Not only do we reveal that synergy is apparent against a range of strains tested, we also investigated the individual contributions of Ltnα and Ltnβ. We established that, when combined with polymyxin B/E, the levels of lacticin 3147 required to inhibit Gram negative species are equivalent or lower than the levels of lacticin 3147 alone against many Gram positive targets. Thus, in the presence of 0.

2005; Zeebe et al 2008) Oceanic pH has already decreased 0 1 U

2005; Zeebe et al. 2008). Oceanic pH has already decreased 0.1 U ever since the industrial revolution in the eighteenth century, and it is speculated to decrease 0.5 U further by the end of the twenty-first century according to IPCC scenario. The pH of the surface ocean is estimated to decrease by 0.3–0.5 and 0.7–0.77 U relative to the present level by 2,100

(pH 7.6–7.9) and 2,300 (pH 7.33–7.5), respectively (Caldeira and Wickett 2003; Ross et al. 2011). Such rapid ocean acidification is believed to have negative influences on marine organism with calcifying organisms as prime targets AG-881 cost for strong Crenigacestat in vitro damage by acidification (Feely et al. 2004), e.g., the bleaching

and reduction of coral reefs (Gattuso et al. 1998; Kleypas et al. 1999; Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007; Anthony et al. 2008; Kuffner et al. 2008; Veron et al. 2009). In addition, the shell of gastropod, https://www.selleckchem.com/products/blasticidin-s-hcl.html Littorina littorea, and foraminifera are shown to lose hardness by acidification (Bibby et al. 2007; Bijma et al. 2002). The fertilization rate of sea urchin, Psammechinus miliaris, declined with acidification (Miles et al. 2007). Such influence of oceanic acidification is expected to affect the entire ecosystem and damage the oceanic environment. However, even under such circumstances, actual events caused by acidification have not been investigated thoroughly in individual organisms (Richier et al. 2010). In particular,

a marine calcifying haptophycean alga, Emiliania huxleyi, is affected by ocean acidification (Iglesias-Rodriguez et al. 2008; Langer et al. 2006; Riebesell et al. 2000) because E. huxleyi forms cell-covering, Glutamate dehydrogenase calcium carbonate crystals, called coccoliths. The alga is known to distribute widely in the world ocean, fix a large amount of carbon, produce a huge biomass and carry carbon from sea surface to the sediment by the biological CO2 pump (Liu et al. 2009). Therefore, E. huxleyi can be said to have played very important roles in the global carbon cycle. Riebesell et al. (2000) reported a reduction in calcification by E.

51 times This confirms that the Au-coated silica sphere array pl

51 times. This confirms that the Au-coated silica sphere array played the role of an efficient top electrode on the ZnO NRA-based NGs. Figure 5 Measured results of ZnO NRA-based NG. (a) Measured output current and voltage of the ZnO NRA-based NG with the top electrodes of (i) Au film on PET and (ii) Au-coated silica sphere array on PET under 0.3 kgf of external pushing force. (b) Statistical distributions of the generated output (i) current and (ii) voltage by Gaussian fits. Conclusion We successfully fabricated the efficient top electrode

for ZnO NRA-based NGs by incorporating the Au-coated silica sphere array on the PET substrate. When Au was deposited onto the multilayer of silica spheres, it formed as a highly MK-1775 price rough surface with angulated morphology. By computational simulations for the strain distribution when bending ZnO nanorods, the rough surface of Au-coated silica sphere array could be expected to further increase the bending radius under an external pushing force. For an experimental analysis, the NGs were fabricated with ZnO NRAs on ITO/PET via the ED method and different top electrodes (i.e., Au film on PET and Au-coated silica sphere array on PET). Under an external pushing force of 0.3 kgf, the Au-coated silica sphere array contributed

to the improvement in output current and voltage by about 2.01 and 1.51 times with regular curves. From these results, the Au-coated silica sphere array could be useful for an efficient top electrode in various ZnO nanostructure-based piezoelectric NG applications. Acknowledgements This research was supported by the QNZ cell line Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (no. 2013–010037). References 1. enough Wang Z, Zhu G, Yang Y, Wang S, Pan C: Progress in nanogenerators for portable electronics. Mater Today 2012, 15:532.CrossRef 2. Choi D, Lee KY, Lee KH, Kim ES, Kim TS, Lee SY, Kim S, Choi J, Kim JM: Piezoelectric touch-sensitive flexible hybrid energy

harvesting nanoarchitectures. Nanotechnol 2010, 21:405503.CrossRef 3. Olivo J, Carrara S, Micheli GD: Energy harvesting and www.selleckchem.com/small-molecule-compound-libraries.html remote powering for implantable biosensors. IEEE Sens J 2011, 11:1573.CrossRef 4. Wang ZL, Song J: Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays. Science 2006, 312:242.CrossRef 5. Shao Z, Wen L, Wu D, Zhang X, Chang S, Qin S: Influence of carrier concentration on piezoelectric potential in a bent ZnO nanorod. J Appl Phys 2010, 108:124312.CrossRef 6. Choi M, Choi D, Jin M, Kim I, Kim S, Choi J, Lee SY, Kim JM, Kim S: Mechanically powered transparent flexible charge-generating nanodevices with piezoelectric ZnO nanorods. Adv Mater 2009, 21:2185.CrossRef 7. Ko YH, Kim MS, Yu JS: Controllable electrochemical synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays on flexible ITO/PET substrate and their structural and optical properties. Appl Surf Sci 2012, 259:99.CrossRef 8.


As regards health care for women, we need to develop and study interventions to help highly educated women cope with their strains and to help balance their energy. And last but not least, workplace violence needs to be studied and targeted, in particular in health care and in education. Implications for practice Highly educated women are generally satisfied with their work. Moreover, our finding that highly educated women have high levels of fatigue does not contradict former findings that

women, including older women, experience their lives as positive and meaningful (Boelens 2007; Gordon et al. 2002). There is, however, some room for improvement. As regards the organizational level, workplace violence must be addressed for instance

by raising awareness, assertiveness training, alarm systems, and counseling. Family–friendly policies focusing on child care learn more are not sufficient for older women who start having responsibilities for caring for their own parents within the context of large jobs. Our findings may also have implications for health care for highly educated women with fatigue complaints. HSP inhibitor In particular, women with stress problems may benefit from active coaching to change stressful interactions at work (Van Veldhoven 2008; Verdonk et al. 2008). In the Netherlands, expectations for the future are that the female workforce will continue to grow and will demonstrate even higher

levels of education. Extrapolating our findings to this future scenario, our findings imply a strong call for attention: work-related fatigue in highly educated women needs a firm place on the policy, research, and occupational health care agenda. Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial Phosphoglycerate kinase use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. References Abramson Z (2007) Masked symptoms: mid-life women, health, and work. Can J Aging 26:295–304CrossRef Åkerstedt T, Knutsson A, Westerholm P, Theorell T, Alfredsson L, Kecklund G (2004) Mental fatigue, work and sleep. J Psychosom Res 57:427–433. doi:10.​1016/​j.​jpsychores.​2003.​12.​001 CrossRef Baines D (2006) Staying with people who slap us click here around: gender, juggling responsibilities and violence in paid (and unpaid) care work. Gend Work Organ 13:129–151. doi:10.​1111/​j.​1468-0432.​2006.​00300.​x CrossRef Bakker AB, Demerouti E, Schaufeli WB (2002) Validation of the Maslach Burnout inventory—general survey: an internet study. Anxiety Stress Coping 15:246–260. doi:10.