Characterization Absorbance of different supernatants was measured by UV–vis spectrophotometry (Shimadzu Co., Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan; UV-2450) to evaluate the dispersion stability. The spectral region is 700 to approximately 250 nm. In the experiment, one of the colorimetric
wares was enclosed by the supernatant with nanographite as testing sample, and the other one was enclosed by the supernatant without nanographite as reference sample. The dispersion state of graphite particles in aqueous environment was characterized by SEM (Hitachi High-Tech, JQ1 chemical structure Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan; S-4800). SEM images under different magnifications displayed the micromorphology of graphite emulsion. Tribological tests The supernatant (obtained under optimal polymerization condition) was added into QDW618 water-based cutting fluid with the ratio of 2.0 wt.%. This mixture was named as nanographite fluid. The QDW618 water-based cutting fluid had been diluted by deionized water with the ratio of 1:10. The diluted QDW618
was named as base fluid to make contrast with the nanographite fluid. A series of tribological parameters were obtained by the four-ball friction tester (Jinan Co., Jinan, China; MR-10A) to evaluate the lubrication performance of the nanographite fluid and base fluid. Conditions of the four-ball wear tests are 600 rpm (spindle speed), 392 N (loads), and 1 h (testing time). Also, the frictional materials in the tests were GCr15 standard steel balls. GSK872 order The maximum non-seizure load (P B ) was measured according to GB3142-82 (Chinese National Standard: spindle speed 1,400 to approximately 1,500 rpm, testing time 10 s). In addition, the surface Pyruvate dehydrogenase lipoamide kinase isozyme 1 tension was tested on a surface tensiometer (Kruss Co., DKSH Hong Kong Limited, Shanghai, China; K-12) to investigate the wettability. Results and discussion
Effects of ACY-241 ic50 ultrasonic dispersion The effects of ultrasonic dispersion can be observed in the SEM images (Figure 2). Figure 2a displays the state of graphite particles before ultrasonic pretreatment. It can be seen that the graphite particles are in agglomeration and that the size distribution is uneven. As shown in Figure 2b, the aggregates are broken down, and the particle size reduces distinctly after ultrasonic dispersion. The graphite particles realize the preliminary dispersion via ultrasonic pretreatment. This will certainly favor the following modification. Therefore, it is a significant procedure to do ultrasonic dispersion before emulsion polymerization. However, this kind of dispersion is unstable because it does not change the surface properties of graphite particles. Figure 2 Effects of ultrasonic pretreatment on graphite particles. (a) Before ultrasonic pretreatment and (b) after ultrasonic pretreatment. Dispersion stability Water-soluble nanographite is prepared through in situ emulsion polymerization of methyl acrylate in the presence of nanographite.