For extraction

of secreted proteins, the supernatant was

For extraction

of secreted proteins, the supernatant was passed through a 0.2 μm Zap-cup sterile filter (10443401 Whatman Schleicher&Schuell) and proteins were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA, 10% [wt/vol] final concentration) over night at 4°C. The pellet was resuspended in 20 ml PBS in a 50 ml centrifuge tube (Falcon, BD) and vigorously mixed on a Vortex mixer (Vortex Genie 2, Scientific Industries) for 60 s at full speed in order to recover cell surface attached proteins (detached fraction). BAY 63-2521 nmr bacteria were harvested by centrifugation at 8,000 × g this website 30 min at 4°C. Residual bacteria were removed by passing the supernatant through a 0.2 μm filter (Corning) and proteins were precipitated with 10% [wt/vol] TCA over night at 4°C. The TCA precipitates

of the supernatant and the detached fraction were pelleted by centrifugation for 45 min at selleck compound 10,000 × g at 4°C. The pellet was washed twice with ice-cold acetone and recovered by centrifugation for 30 min at 10,000 × g at 4°C. The final pellet was air dried, resuspended in × μl sample buffer corresponding to the volume of the pellet and heated at 95°C for 5 min. Expression, surface-attachment and secretion protein profiles of wild-type SseB or SseD and mutant variants, were analyzed by SDS-Page using Tris-Tricine gels (12%) according to the method of Schägger and von Jagow [30]. For Western blotting, the semi-dry blotting procedure described by Kyhse-Andersen [31] was performed with slight modifications. The proteins were transferred onto 0.2 μm nitrocellulose membranes (Schleicher & Schüll) in Towbin buffer according to standard protocols [32]. For detection of SseB and SseD on Western blots, purified polyclonal rabbit antisera were used [7]. Mouse anti DnaK (Biotrend, Cologne, Germany) antibody was used to control equal loading of bacterial lysates as well as release of cytosolic protein into the detached fraction and the culture supernatant due to bacterial cell lysis. As secondary antibodies, horseradish find more peroxidase-conjugated

goat anti-rabbit IgG and goat anti-mouse IgG (HRP, Jackson) were used. The blots were incubated for 1 min with Pierce® ECL Western Blotting Substrate (32209, ThermoScientific) and exposed to X-ray films (Hyperfilm, GE, Freiburg, Germany). Cell culture and infection procedure For infection experiments, the murine monocyte cell line RAW264.7 was cultured in DMEM (E15-843, PAA, Pasching, Austria) supplemented with 10% FCS (Sigma-Aldrich) and 2 mM Glutamax (Invitrogen) at 37°C in 5% CO2and 90% humidity. The cells were used for experiments up to passage number 25. Cells were seeded in 24 well plates (Greiner bio-one) one day before infection and allowed to duplicate. Bacteria were grown overnight at 37°C and stored at 4°C until use. Cultures were adjusted to OD600 = 0.

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