The amplification of the partial gap gene
for all of the Staphylococcus species (sequence similarity ranges from 24.3 to 96%) yield a single product of nearly 931 bp . The sequence similarity of the gap sequences ranged from 24.3 to 96% . In fact, in our analyses the second closest strain was S. haemolyticus (data not shown), which has a gap gene Captisol mw sequence similarity of 27%  with S. lugdunensis. We found that among the 8 isolates positive in both PYR and ODC tests, 5 were S. lugdunensis and the other three were S. haemolyticus. This may due to S. haemolyticus being weakly positive for ODC, which is consistent with previous results . Of the 5 isolates of S. lugdunensis identified in this study, 3 were obtained from wound, breast, and cervix secretions, suggesting that skin and soft tissue infections account for H 89 price a prominent number of the total infections caused by S. lugdunensis, which is consistent with previous results . One isolate was from the synovial fluid of the patient with a joint infection. Frank et al. reported that this bacterium infects artificially replaced joints  and it accounts for 4% of all joint infections . Another isolate was
from the venous blood of a newborn baby with pneumonia. Tee et al. previously reported a case of neonatal pneumonia caused by this bacterium but that case suffered from a catheter-related blood infection . Consistent with previous results , S. lugdunensis was not isolated from any sputum cultures in this study, which may be due to inability of this bacterium to colonize the respiratory tract. Four out of the five S. lugdunensis isolates identified in this study produced β-lactamase (Table 3), which indicates an incidence of 80% that is much Rebamipide higher than the incidence in other countries , including 7-24% in France, 24-40% in the U.S., 12% in Spain,
and 15% in Sweden. Of note, our small number of positive isolates might have potentially biased such estimations. Only one out of the five isolates was not KPT-330 purchase resistant to the antimicrobial drugs tested, three were resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, and penicillin, and one was resistant to cefoxitin and penicillin (Table 3). We found that the three isolates resistant to erythromycin were positive for the ermC gene but not the ermA or ermB gene; and the isolate resistant to cefoxitin was positive for the mecA gene; the later was only reported a few times in the previous studies [8, 30, 31]. We further found that the rate of antibiotic resistance of S. lugdunensis is more severe in China than in other countries and primarily presented as multi-drug resistance, again such an inference might suffer from potential bias due to the sample size of the confirmed isolates. We performed PFGE in order to determine the epidemiological characteristics of S.