Within the current investigation, given the close resemblance to

Within the current investigation, given the close resemblance to the TT method and high external validity one may infer that results check details may be directly translated to use for the recreational endurance runner. Along with this, supplements tested in the present investigation followed current guidelines for CHO supplementation during endurance exercise; thus one would have expected to exhibit a difference in athletic performance between all caloric supplementation and PLA. The

previously aforementioned running field trials also followed current guidelines for CHO supplementation. It is important to note the current recommendation for CHO supplementation is based on experiments conducted in controlled laboratory settings comparing CHO supplementation

to water using cycling ergometer protocols [21]. Therefore, findings from the present investigation and previous running field studies provide evidence to suggest that investigations conducted within a laboratory setting using a cycling ergometer protocol may not translate directly into field use and generalize to all modes of exercise. Limitations of the present investigation include a fairly homogenous sample, self-reported diet and exercise prior to each session, and slightly different sources of CHO in the CHO-P vs. CHO and CHO-CHO supplements. To MK5108 concentration clarify outcomes, future research should compare CHO and CHO-P supplements to PLA in recreational athletes, within field settings, with varying modes of exercise (i.e.- cycling and running), using differing lengths of performance. Conclusions Overall, results of the

present investigation suggests no difference in endurance performance between commercially-available CHO and CHO-P supplements in outdoor runs > 60 minutes at moderate- to vigorous-intensity for male recreational runners. Additionally, this supplementation did not enhance performance above that of PLA. As suggested by Burke and colleagues [15], improvements in endurance performance > 60 minutes with CHO supplementation, or any caloric supplementation, warrants further investigation, Dynein particularly in regards to translating outcomes to applied use. Authors’ information This investigation was the master’s thesis research of AC. HR was AC’s thesis advisor and mentor. DL was a member of the thesis committee. Acknowledgements Thank you to Dr. Michael Zemel who contributed to the study design and was also a member of the thesis committee. BTSA1 datasheet References 1. Desbrow B, Anderson S, Barrett J, Rao E, Hargreaves M: Carbohydrate-electrolyte feedings and 1 h time trial cycling performance. Int J Sport Nutr and Exercise Metab 2004, 14:541–549. 2. Kerksick C, Harvey T, Stout J, Campbell B, Wilborn C, Kreider R, Kalman D, Ziegenfuss T, Lopez H, Landis J, Ivy JL, Antonio J: Internationational society of sports nutrition position stand: nutrient timing. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2008, 5:17.PubMedCrossRef 3.

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