This model accurately predicts the probability that an exon will be split by a new intron and the distribution of novel insertions along the length of the exon.\n\nResults: As the first observation from this model, we show that the chance for an exon to obtain an intron is proportional to its size to the 3rd power. We also show that such size dependence is

nearly constant across gene, with the exception of the exons adjacent to the 5′ UTR. As the second conclusion from the model, we show that intron insertion loci follow a normal distribution with a mean of 0.5 (center of the see more exon) and a standard deviation of 0.11. Finally, we show that intron insertions within a gene are independent of each other for vertebrates, but are more negatively correlated for non-vertebrate. We use simulation to demonstrate that the negative correlation might result from significant intron loss during evolution, which could be explained by selection

against multi-intron genes in these organisms.\n\nConclusions: The GRFP model suggests that intron gain is dynamic with a higher chance for longer exons; introns are inserted into exons randomly with the highest probability at the center of the exon. GRFP estimates that there are 78 introns in every 10 kb coding sequences for vertebrate genomes, agreeing with empirical observations. GRFP also estimates that there are significant intron losses in the evolution of non-vertebrate genomes, with extreme cases of around 57% intron loss in Drosophila melanogaster, 28% in Caenorhabditis Z-DEVD-FMK elegans, and 24% in Oryza sativa.”

“We investigate the effectiveness and Liproxstatin-1 mw applicability of electroosmotic augmentation in flexural plate wave (FPW) micropumps for enhanced capabilities. Flow rates generated in FPW micro-scale flow systems are restricted particularly when the channel height is greater than the acoustic wave length.

The proposed concept can be exploited to integrate micropumps into complex microfluidic chips improving the portability of micro-total-analysis systems along with the capabilities of actively controlling acoustics and electrokinetics for micro-mixer applications. A computational study of electroosmotic augmentation in FPW micropumps is presented where FPWs are considered by a moving wall model. A transient analysis of compressible flows of water is performed for microchannels. An isothermal equation of state for water is employed. The nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann and Laplace equations are used to model the induced electric double layer (EDL) potential and the applied electric potential. Coupled electroosmotic and acoustics cases are investigated for two channel heights while the electric field intensity of the electrokinetic body forces and actuation frequency of acoustic excitations are varied.