With the ionic liquid catalyst, a hitherto unreported straightfor

With the ionic liquid catalyst, a hitherto unreported straightforward method for the construction of the indolo[3,2-b]carbazole skeleton was also developed using 2-hydroxymethylindole and acetophenone as starting materials.”
“The poly-L-proline type II (PPII) helix in recent years has emerged clearly as a structural class not only of fibrillar proteins (in collagen, PPII is a dominant Selleckchem SRT2104 conformation) but

also of the folded and unfolded proteins. Although much less abundant in folded proteins than the alpha-helix and beta-structure, the left-handed, extended PPII helix represents the only frequently occurring regular structure apart from these two structure classes. Natively unfolded proteins have a high content of the PPII helices identified by spectroscopic methods. Apart from the structural function, PPII is favorable for protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions and plays a major role in signal transduction and protein complex assembly, as this structure is often found in binding sites, specifically binding

sites LDK378 molecular weight of widely spread SH3 domains. PPII helices do not necessarily contain proline, but proline has high PPII propensity. Commonly occurring proline-rich regions, serving as recognition sites, are likely to have PPII structure. PPII helices are involved in transcription, cell motility, self-assembly, elasticity, and bacterial and viral pathogenesis, and

has an important structural role in amyloidogenic proteins. However, PPII helices are not always assigned in experimentally solved structures, and they are rarely used in protein structure modeling. We aim to give an overview of this structural class and of the place it holds in our current understanding of protein structure and function. This review is subdivided into three main parts: the first part covers PPII helices Selleck Taselisib in unfolded peptides and proteins, the second part includes studies of the PPII helices in folded proteins, and the third part discusses the functional role of the PPII. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The catadromous Platyeriocheir formosa is a crab endemic in Taiwan. To conserve P. formosa population diversity and ensure the sustainable use of this natural resource, we have developed new genetic markers, 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci, to promote the study of its population genetics in the future. In this study, more than 70 microsatellite sequences were found. Among these, 18 loci were selected to analyze the genetic diversity of P. formosa. With the exception of the Pfo15 locus, all of the remaining loci were polymorphic with allelic numbers ranging from 3-14. Heterozygosity within all 17 polymorphic loci ranged from 0.2-0.95 with an average of 0.55, which suggested that these loci are proper markers for studying population genetics.

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