In addition, a long-lived DC vaccine capable of stable presentati

In addition, a long-lived DC vaccine capable of stable presentation of endogenously processed epitopes could generate multiantigenic and multifunctional responses. An integrase defective lentiviral vector expressing pp65 used to co-transduce SmyleDCs and SmartDCs produced stable expression of the antigen, without affecting their viability or DC phenotypes (Fig. 7a). Quantitative

detection of pp65 in SmyleDCs/pp65 or SmartDCs/pp65 by intracellular staining and flow cytometry analyses, showed pp65 expression in approximately 80% of the cells (Fig. 7a). Day 7 Conv-IFN-α-DCs, SmyleDCs generated with ID-LVs and SmyleDCs generated with IC-LVs resulted in similar stimulation of allogeneic or autologous T cells in MLR (Fig. S7a and b). For SmartDCs, DCs programmed with IC-LVs were more stimulatory in MLR (Fig. S8a and b). For pp65-specific Ulixertinib chemical structure T cell stimulation, iDCs generated with IC-LVs were superior, but conventional DCs and iDCs generated with

ID-LV were equally stimulatory as well (Figs. S7c, d and S8c, d). Therefore, the co-transduction with two ID-LVs (one expressing the antigen and the other expressing the cytokines) was shown as a feasible approach for generating functional antigen-loaded iDCs and was further explored due to its improved safety advantages. We performed additional assays in order to better characterize the phenotypes of T cells generated upon stimulation with iDCs generated upon co-transduction of two ID-LVs. We used a similar experimental scheme used for stimulations with iDCs pulsed with peptides, except that T cells had to be stimulated twice in vitro in order selleckchem to generate higher frequencies of T cells that could be analyzed by tetramers specific against two pp65 epitopes. Non-stimulated and iDC-stimulated T cells were harvested for tetramer analyses and IFN-γ ELISPOT. The results for both assays showed higher stimulation of CD8+ Modulators responses when using SmartDCs/pp65 than SmyleDCs/pp65 ( Fig. 7b and d). Notwithstanding,

the frequency T central memory cells below were higher after stimulation with SmyleDC/pp65 than with SmartDC/pp65 ( Fig. 7c). The stimulation with SmartDCs/pp65 seemed to favor the expansion of T effector memory cells, producing higher levels of IFN-γ. We have previously demonstrated that SmartDCs engineered with IC-LVs and co-expressing pp65 substantially accelerated CD8+ functional anti-pp65 responses in NRG mice [10]. In a similar experimental setting as we had described before, SmyleDCs/pp65 or SmartDCs/pp65 programmed with ID-LVs were used as s.c. vaccines to precondition mice prior to infusion with autologous, unstimulated CD8+ T cells. 14 days after T cell infusion, PBL and spleen were analyzed. As previously observed, the frequency of human CD3+CD8+ T cells detectable in PBL of mice preconditioned with SmartDC/pp65 was significantly higher than in PBL of control mice injected with PBS (Fig. 8a).

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