The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The local structure (bond length and bond angle) of [NiF6](4-) clusters are determined, and the selleck results shows that the structure data given by Stout are more plausible than those given by Baur. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“To identify host factors that play critical roles in processes, including cell-to-cell movement of plant-adapted rhabdoviruses, we constructed and validated a high-resolution Nicotiana benthamiana yeast two-hybrid
library. The library was screened with the putative movement protein (sc4), nucleocapsid (N), and matrix (M) proteins of Sonchus yellow net virus (SYNV). This resulted in identification of 31 potential host factors. Steady-state localization studies using autofluorescent ERK inhibitor protein fusions to full-length clones of interactors were conducted in transgenic N. benthamiana marker lines. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays were used to validate two-hybrid interactions. The sc4 interactor, sc4i21, localized to microtubules. The N interactor, Ni67, localized to punctuate loci on the endoplasmic reticulum. These two proteins are 84% identical homologues of the Arabidopsis
phloem-associated transcription activator AtVOZ1, and contain functional nuclear localization signals. Sc4i17 is a microtubule-associated motor protein. The M interactor, Mi7, is a nuclear-localized transcription factor. Combined with AG-881 cell line a binary interaction map for SYNV proteins, our data support a model in which the SYNV nucleocapsids are exported from the nucleus and moved cell-to-cell by transcription activators tethered in the cytoplasm.”
“The analysis of the genomes of bacterial pathogens
indicates that they have acquired their pathogenic capability by incorporating different genetic elements through horizontal gene transfer. The ancestors of virulent bacteria, as well as the origin of virulence determinants, lay most likely in the environmental microbiota. Studying the role that these determinants may have in non-clinical ecosystems is thus of value for understanding in detail the evolution and the ecology of bacterial pathogens. In this article, I propose that classical virulence determinants might be relevant for basic metabolic processes (for instance iron-uptake systems) or in modulating prey/predator relationships (toxins) in natural, non-infective ecosystems. The different role that horizontal gene transfer and mutation may have in the evolution of bacterial pathogens either for their speciation or in short-sighted evolution processes is also discussed.”
“The evolution of the shape of a stripe mesa during molecular-beam epitaxy of GaAs is studied under different growth conditions (e.g., growth temperature, As pressure). If the stripe mesa is along the < 1 (1) over bar0 > axis on a (001) GaAs substrate, 11nA facets (n = 1, 3, 4, 5) are formed. We found that 111A and 113A predominate if the stripe width is less than 1.5 mu m.