Recognition of the extra-hematopoietic biologic actions of erythr

Recognition of the extra-hematopoietic biologic actions of erythropoietin is a result of the better understanding of its interaction with Epo receptors in several tissues and organ systems, during fetal development as well

as in the adult organism. More specifically, antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, angiogenetic and cytoprotective effects have been revealed in the kidneys, cardiovascular system, brain and retina. Until future studies are able to clarify the multiple beneficial or unfavorable effects of Epo, it is advisable to remain prudent in its administration, yet optimistic about its possible contribution in a number of pathologic conditions. Hippokratia 2011; 15 (2): 109-115″
“Although renal trauma is increasingly managed nonoperatively, severe renovascular injuries occasionally require nephrectomy. Long-term

outcomes after trauma nephrectomy are unknown. We hypothesized that the risk of AZD8931 chemical structure end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is minimal after trauma nephrectomy. We conducted a retrospective review of the following: 1) our university-based, urban trauma center database; 2) the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB); 3) the National Inpatient Sample (NIS); and 4) the U. S. Renal Data System (USRDS). Data were compiled to estimate the risk of ESRD after trauma nephrectomy in the United States. Of the 232 patients who sustained traumatic renal injuries at our MK-0518 institution from 1998 to 2007, 36 (16%) underwent a nephrectomy an average of approximately four nephrectomies per year. The NTDB reported 1780 trauma nephrectomies from 2002 to 2006, an average of 356 per year. The 2005 NIS data estimated that in the United States, over 20,000 nephrectomies

are performed annually for renal cell carcinoma. The USRDS annual incidence of ESRD requiring hemodialysis is over 90,000, of which 0.1 per cent (100 per year) of renal failure is the result of traumatic or surgical loss of a kidney. Considering the large number of nephrectomies performed for cancer, we estimated the risk of trauma nephrectomy causing renal failure that requires dialysis to be 0.5 per cent. National data regarding the etiology of renal failure among patients with ESRD reveal HM781-36B clinical trial a very low incidence of trauma nephrectomy (0.5%) as a cause; therefore, nephrectomy for trauma can be performed with little concern for long-term dialysis dependence.”
“Inappropriate seizure management may result in high morbidity and mortality. We assessed the adherence of health professionals in southern Rwanda to a national protocol for pharmacological management of seizures in children. A questionnaire featuring a 5-year-old child with generalized prolonged seizures was administered. The questions focused on the choice of initial treatment and the sequence of management following failure of the initial treatment choice. Benzodiazepine was chosen as initial therapy by 93.7% of physicians and 90.9% of nurses.

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