In addition, in the remaining PF–Purkinje cell synapses, the post

In addition, in the remaining PF–Purkinje cell synapses, the postsynaptic densities are disproportionally longer than the presynaptic active zones. These unique morphological phenotypes and Ca2+-resistant binding of the

NRX/Cbln1/GluD2 complex is consistent with the function of the complex as synaptic glue, connecting pre- and postsynaptic elements. The second unique feature of the NRX/Cbln1/GluD2 complex is that the secreted Cbln1 works by being sandwiched between presynaptic NRX and postsynaptic GluD2. In central nervous system synapses, synaptic organizers are classified into two categories: cell adhesion molecules that directly link pre- and postsynaptic elements and soluble factors. Most soluble synaptic organizers in the central nervous system, such as neuronal pentraxins (Xu et al.,

2003), fibroblast Napabucasin order growth factors (Terauchi et al., 2010) and Wnt-7a (Hall et al., 2000), work on either the pre- or postsynaptic site, depending on the location of their receptors (Johnson-Venkatesh & Umemori, 2010). Thus, the sandwich-type signaling by the NRX/Cbln1/GluD2 complex is unique in that secreted Cbln1 serves as a bidirectional synaptic organizer. For Cbln1 to bind to pre- and postsynaptic receptors simultaneously, Cbln1 needs to have at least two binding sites. This could have been achieved by the presence of multiple binding sites within single Cbln1 monomers or by the presentation of single binding sites in different

directions by forming a multimeric Cbln1 complex find more (Iijima MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit et al., 2007). Recently, glial-derived neurotrophic factor was also proposed to serve as a synaptic adhesion molecule being sandwiched by its receptor glial-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor (GFR)α1 located at pre- and postsynaptic neurons (Ledda et al., 2007). In addition, leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 was recently shown to be secreted from neurons and to organize presynaptic potassium channels and postsynaptic AMPA receptors by binding to its pre- and postsynaptic receptors, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 22 and ADAM23, respectively (Fukata et al., 2010). These recent findings indicate that the sandwich type constitutes the third category of synaptic organizers. Advantages of sandwich-type synaptic organizers may include an additional level of regulation of synapse formation and its functions. For example, the expression of cbln1 mRNA is completely shut down in granule cells when neuronal activity is increased for several hours (Iijima et al., 2009). Similarly, a sustained increase in neuronal activity causes the internalization of GluD2 from the postsynaptic site of cultured Purkinje cells (Hirai, 2001). As Cbln1 and NLs compete for NRXs, such activity-dependent regulation of Cbln1 and GluD2 might lead to switching between NRX/NL and NRX/Cbln1/GluD2 modes of synaptogenesis.

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