elegans to paralysis induced by the cholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb has been used as a measure of acetylcholine release (ACh) at neuromuscular junctions ( Miller et al., 1996). Mutations that decrease ACh secretion confer resistance to aldicarb-induced paralysis ( Nonet et al., 1998 and Saifee et al., 1998), while those that
increase ACh secretion cause aldicarb hypersensitivity ( Gracheva et al., 2006, McEwen et al., 2006 and Vashlishan et al., 2008). Many neuropeptide-deficient mutants are aldicarb resistant, implying that endogenous neuropeptides Selleckchem Pexidartinib regulate synaptic transmission ( Edwards et al., 2009, Husson and Schoofs, 2007, Jacob and Kaplan, 2003, Kass et al., 2001, Sieburth et al., 2005, Sieburth et al., 2007, Speese et al., 2007 and Sumakovic et al., 2009); however, the synaptic basis for the aldicarb resistance of neuropeptide mutants has not been determined. Electrophysiological recordings have been reported for four neuropeptide-deficient mutants. In three cases (pkc-1 PKCɛ, unc-108 Rab2, and ric-19 Dinaciclib ICA69 mutants), baseline transmission was unaltered whereas in the fourth case (unc-31 CAPS) transmission was modestly reduced ( Edwards et al., 2009, Gracheva et al.,
2007, Sieburth et al., 2007 and Sumakovic et al., 2009). This discrepancy may reflect the fact that CAPS has also been proposed to directly promote SV exocytosis ( Jockusch et al., 2007). Thus, it remains unclear how neuropeptides Tryptophan synthase alter neuromuscular signaling. Here we show that aldicarb treatment potentiates ACh release in wild-type animals, that the neuropeptide NLP-12 is required for this effect, and that NLP-12 is secreted by a stretch-activated mechanosensory neuron
(DVA). Collectively, our results suggest that NLP-12 provides proprioceptive feedback that couples muscle contraction to changes in presynaptic release. These results provide a synaptic mechanism for proprioceptive control of locomotion behavior. To further address the impact of endogenous neuropeptides on cholinergic transmission, we recorded excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) from adult body muscles of egl-3 PC2 mutants ( Figure 1). The egl-3 gene encodes a protease that is most similar to proprotein convertase type 2 (PC2) ( Kass et al., 2001) and egl-3 PC2 mutants have severe defects in proneuropeptide processing ( Husson et al., 2006 and Jacob and Kaplan, 2003). Like other neuropeptide-deficient mutants, egl-3 mutants were resistant to aldicarb-induced paralysis ( Figure 1I) ( Jacob and Kaplan, 2003). We recorded both endogenous EPSCs, which are synaptic events mediated by the endogenous activity of cholinergic motor neurons, as well as EPSCs evoked by a depolarizing stimulus. In egl-3 null mutants, the rate, amplitude, and kinetics of endogenous EPSCs, and the amplitude and total synaptic charge of evoked EPSCs were all unaltered compared to wild-type controls ( Figure 1; see Figure S1 and Table S1 available online).