Borellia burgdorferi, Babesia microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum rely almost exclusively on a single loop representing transmission to susceptible larvae feeding on vertebrate hosts that were infected by nymphs. Borellia miyamotoi, in contrast, circulates among a separate set of host types and utilizes loops that are a mix of vertical transmission and horizontal transmission. For B. miyamotoi the main loop is from vertebrate hosts to susceptible nymphs, where the vertebrate hosts were infected
by larvae that were infected from birth. The results for Powassan buy RG7112 virus are similar to B. miyamotoi. The predicted impacts of the known variation in tick phenology between populations of I. scapularis in the Midwest
and Northeast of the United States are hence markedly different for the two groups. All of these pathogens benefit, though, from synchronous activity of larvae and nymphs. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“S-Nitrosylation is a well-characterized reaction involving the covalent binding of nitric BYL719 research buy oxide (NO) to cysteine residues (Cys) in a protein. Similar to protein phosphorylation, S-nitrosylation is a post-translational modification involved in the regulation of a large number of intracellular functions and signaling events. Moreover, like phosphorylation, S-nitrosylation is precisely regulated in time and space. A procedure known as the biotin-switch method that specifically detects S-nitrosylated proteins (SNO-P) was recently developed by Snyder’s group. They found that many proteins are substrates for NO, and several groups have attempted to identify other SNO-P by improving this method. In this review, we describe the SNO-P identified using modified versions of the biotin-switch method. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The p53 feedback loop can induce cellular senescence, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to various stresses, including DNA damage, hypoxia and nutrient deprivation. Using a stochastic model of the negative feedback circuit involving
p53 and its inhibitor Mdm2, we present the different oscillatory dynamics at the single-cell and population-cell levels as described in the experiments, and the resonant nature of the oscillations HSP90 is captured. The stationary distributions of protein populations are characterized by non-Gaussian nature which is due to the interplay between time delay and nonlinearity of reactions. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a major vasoactive peptide of the renin-angiotensin system. Ang Ills originally found as one of potent vasoconstrictors, but is now attracted attention as an essential mediator of many cardiovascular problems, including endothelial dysfunction, arrhythmia and structural remodeling of cardiovascular systems.