Because the content of CCSSA items resembles the content of the items on Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK), CCSSA is intended to be a tool for students to help assess whether they are prepared for Step 2 CK and to become familiar with its content, format, and pacing. Purposes: This study APR-246 in vitro examined the relationship between performance on the National Board of Medical Examiners (R) CCSSA and performance on the United States Medical Licensing Examination (R) Step 2 CK for U.S./Canadian (USMGs) and international medical school students/graduates (IMGs). Methods: The study included 9,789 participants who took CCSSA prior to their first Step 2 CK attempt. Linear and logistic regression
analyses investigated the relationship between CCSSA performance and performance on Step 2 CK for both USMGs and IMGs. Results: CCSSA scores explained 58% of the variation in first Step 2 CK scores for USMGs and 60% of the variation for IMGs; the relationship was somewhat different for the two groups as indicated
by statistically different intercepts and slopes for the regression lines based on each group. AZD8186 Logistic regression results showed that examinees in both groups with low scores on CCSSA were at a higher risk of failing their first Step 2 CK attempt. Conclusions: Results suggest that CCSSA can provide students with a valuable practice tool and a realistic self-assessment of their readiness to take Step 2 CK.”
“Adhesion proteins are responsible
for the structural integrity of epithelial tissue and in tumors this integrity is often lost, resulting in a disorganization of the tissue. In the present study the complexity of the invasive front of colon carcinomas was correlated with cell adhesion protein expression and with polymorphisms in their genes. A complexity index was constructed from 32 colon carcinomas using computer-assisted morphometry estimating fractal dimension and tumor cell clusters followed by tree analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of beta-catenin, E-cadherin, occludin and claudin 2 was used for assessment of protein expression. Genetic screening of tissue from the tumor invasion front with laser microdissection was selleck kinase inhibitor performed using SSCP and DNA sequencing. Adhesion protein distribution was significantly disturbed in most carcinomas. A single mutation in the gene of beta-catenin was found but there was no correlation between protein expression and genetic polymorphism. Nor was there any correlation between the complexity of the invasive border and protein distribution or genetic alterations. The results indicate that the complexity of colon carcinoma invasion is not dependent on genetic derangements in the genes of adhesion proteins or the protein distribution. Rather, aberrations in the function of other proteins related to the adhesive proteins could be responsible.