We recommend that, unless there is a specific contraindication, p

We recommend that, unless there is a specific contraindication, patients should be offered spinal anesthesia when undergoing operative fixation of an ankle fracture.

Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.”
“Objective: To study the relationship

between environmental factors and nonsyndromic cleft of the lip and/or palate Bucladesine (NSCLP) in eastern Guangdong for the prevention of NSCLP.

Methods: A 1:1 retrospective case-control study was carried out. Data from 479 children with NSCLP who accepted comprehensive care in our center were recruited as cases from April 2010 to April 2013. An equal number of controls were recruited from pediatrics during the same period. Then we conducted face-to-face interviews with both parents using a structural questionnaire to identify the relationship between NSCLP and environmental

risk factors.

Results: Univariate Chi-square analysis identified 23 factors (P < 0.05) as being significantly related to NSCLP. Stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses demonstrated that there were 16 factors significantly associated with this disease. Being male (OR = 0.609), parental childbearing age of 25-29 years (ORrather = 0.633; ORmother = 0.469), higher parental education level (high school or greater) and folic acid supplementation (OR = 0.360) were protective factors against NSCLP. However, positive family history of NSCLP LY3023414 clinical trial (OR = 54.132), positive maternal abortion history (OR = 3.698), high or low parental age at time of childbirth, poor maternal education level (primary this website school) (OR = 2.258), maternal common

cold during pregnancy (OR = 1.464), and drug use during pregnancy (OR = 3.364) were significant risk factors for NSCLP.

Conclusion: The findings are beneficial for researchers to understand the etiology of NSCLP and to lay a solid foundation for the prevention of NSCLP in eastern Guangdong through educational programs to teach parents about the benefits of folic acid supplementation, adequate parental age at childbirth (2529 years), higher parental education level (high school or higher), and the dangers of common cold and drug use during the first trimester of pregnancy, positive family history and maternal abortion history. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose of review

Axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) – including ankylosing spondylitis (AS) – is a frequent chronic inflammatory disease that affects mainly the axial skeleton. There is evidence that NSAIDs and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha blockers are efficacious, but not all patients achieve remission or a major clinical response. A variety of new drug classes have been investigated during the last years for the treatment of patients with AS in whom TNF blockers have failed or are contraindicated.

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