The most

The most selleck chemicals llc interesting strain was B. animalis subsp. lactis, which was the least sensitive strain in our study. This pH-resistant strain has a great potential for use in foods as a probiotic supplement since a higher number of bacterial cells would survive the passage. However, to use this strain as probiotic, more studies have to be performed in order to achieve the probiotic status according to the definition of Klaenhammer [3]. In our study, the ingestion of a food matrix was simulated in an initial Vorinostat research buy environment of acidified milk and growth medium. The added simulated gastric solution and oxygen during the stomach

phase increased the stress. During the simulated passage to the small intestine the oxygen was replaced by nitrogen and the medium was neutralized to pH 6.3. The addition of the pancreatic solution and bile salts completed the passage into the small intestine. This in-vitro system did not take into account that in in vivo digestion, enzymes are activated and inactivated and other substances, e.g. bile salts are reabsorbed. Sumeri et al. [9] found a partial solution to bypass this problem. They diluted the content of the reactor with a specially designed dilution medium. Another possibility would be to precipitate

the bile salts at the end of simulation of the small intestine to imitate the enterohepatic circuit. This could be performed with calcium ions [28–30]. Removing the bile salts would better simulate the environment of the Androgen Receptor Antagonist colon and might even allow bifidobacteria to proliferate.

In our study, the remaining bile salts and pancreatic juice in the simulation led to an additional stress on bacteria which probably altered the true characteristics of the strains in vivo. The starting cfu in the simulation varied within one log cfu even though the adjustment of OD650 of the inoculum Buspirone HCl was previously tested with the Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis strains. The bifidobacteria used in this study showed a tendency to form clusters that may result in reduced cfu (visual observations, data not shown). In another study, the formation of clusters could be related to decreasing pH during growth [31]. These clusters are usually counted as one colony on a plate. Figure 6 shows the results of the stomach-intestine passage simulation over 7 h of seven tested Bifidobacterium strains. The concentration of living cells of bifidobacteria decreased immediately after incubation due to the low pH (pH 3.0). However, B. animalis subsp. lactis remained stable. This confirmed the results of previous experiments discussed above (Figure 4). This resistance could be extended to bile salts and pancreatic juice although the cell counts of B. animalis subsp. lactis decreased by about 85% of the initial value (Figure 6). Compared to the other strains used in this study, however, this decrease was almost negligible. All B. longum and B.

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