5 million deaths TB has been classically associated with poverty

5 million deaths. TB has been classically associated with poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. Low income countries and deprived areas, within big cities in developed countries, present the highest TB incidences and TB mortality rates. These are the settings where immigration, important social inequalities, HIV infection and

drug or alcohol abuse may coexist, all factors strongly associated with TB. In spite of the political, economical, selleck research and community efforts, TB remains a major global health problem worldwide. Moreover, in this new century, new challenges such as multidrug-resistance extension, migration to big cities and the new treatments with anti-tumour necrosis alpha factor for inflammatory diseases have emerged and threaten the decreasing trend in the global number of TB cases in the last years. We must also be aware about Quizartinib mouse the impact that smoking and diabetes pandemics may be having on the incidence of TB. The existence of a good TB Prevention and Control Program is essential to fight against TB. The coordination among clinicians, microbiologists, epidemiologists and others, and the link between surveillance, control and research should always be a priority for

a TB Program. Each city and country should define their needs according to the epidemiological situation. Local TB control programs will have to adapt to any new challenge that arises in order to respond to the needs of their population.”
“Purpose of review

Donor shortage in corneal transplantation is a significant problem in Asian countries and is an emerging issue worldwide. This review will discuss current knowledge of the pathogenesis of the rejection mechanism, recent advances in xenocorneal transplantation, and feasibility of porcine xenocorneal graft.

Recent findings

alpha-Gal epitopes which are expressed on the porcine cornea, however less than in other vascularized see more organs. A small animal model provided evidence of complement-mediated or antibody-mediated rejection in porcine xenocorneal transplantation. Recent progress in genetic engineering of the pig or biomedical engineering

for removal of the alpha-Gal epitope appears to have resulted in reduction of antibody-mediated rejection. Porcine corneal xenograft is not rejected hyperacutely in all animal models. T cells predominantly mediate xenocorneal rejection through various animal models. Survival of lamellar fresh porcine grafts is longer than that of full-thickness fresh porcine grafts. Decellularized porcine grafts also demonstrate significantly longer survival than fresh grafts do.


Recent studies have documented the potential of the porcine corneal graft as a substitute for use in human allograft and have highlighted the mechanisms of rejection of xenocorneal transplantation. Antibody-mediated or complement-mediated xenogeneic rejection should be further explored in a large animal model.

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