5-1 0 g·min-1[21] Therefore, we speculate that the exercise inte

5-1.0 g·min-1[21]. Therefore, we speculate that the exercise intensity and amount of CHO consumed allowed for adequate GI blood supply to support high oxidation efficiency and a smaller % of the ingested CHO remained in the GI tract [1]. It was hypothesized that the increased

fiber content in raisins, combined with the mechanical jarring involved with running, would result in greater GI discomfort. The dietary fiber in raisins could have had an osmotic effect in the intestinal lumen resulting in abdominal pain and diarrhea [14]. Our subjects consumed ~7 g·hr-1 fiber during the raisin treatment and had no severe GI disturbances compared to the chews and water treatments. A slight increase in belching was experienced for both the raisins and chews selleck chemicals llc treatment yet, exercise performance was better in these trials than water only. There seems be a direct relationship between exercise Napabucasin ic50 duration and GI distress [15, 22],

especially in ultramarathon distances whereby GI distress can severely limit performance [22]. It is possible that if individuals continue to consume fiber-rich CHO sources, such as raisins, during endurance events >2-hr, the combined increase in exercise duration and fiber content in the GI tract could increase the severity of GI symptoms experienced. Further study with longer distances and in actual race conditions is warranted. Another factor that can contribute to GI discomfort is the hydration status of an individual. Subjects have reported GI complaints (37.5%) while exercising why in a dehydrated state (4% BW loss) [23]. Hydration status in our subjects was sufficient in all treatments (hematocrit = ~47% and BW loss = ~1.5%), which could explain the few GI complaints. The raisin treatment elicited higher plasma CK concentrations, corrected for baseline measures, during the 80-min run. We are unsure as to the causes of the higher CK values with the raisins, but only half of the subjects had higher responses with the raisin treatment compared to water or chews. The large standard deviations in the

measurement of plasma CK selleck chemicals levels could have played a role as could higher baseline levels before treatment consumption. The subjective scoring of muscle soreness and fatigue were similar between all treatments as was time trial performance and hydration status. Thus, the CK response to exercise appeared to be dissociated from other indices of muscle damage (e.g. muscle soreness and performance impairment) [24]. It is uncertain as to what factors resulted in the higher plasma CK concentrations with raisin ingestion and further research on the potential detrimental effects of raisin ingestion with exercise durations greater than 2-hours is needed. This study is limited in that we conducted this experiment in the laboratory instead of an actual running competition and the treatments were given to subjects while standing on the treadmill instead of while running.

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