0005 0.0030 0.0114 Impeller tip speed (ITS): (1) where π = 3.142 N = Agitation speed DI = Impeller diameter Agitation speed (N): (2) Inoculum volume (Vx): (3) Analytical methods The 1,3-PD, glycerol and organic acids were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples for chemical analysis were first centrifuged at 10,000 g for 10 min at 4°C (Multifuge 3SR, Germany), filtered through a 0.22 μm membrane filter (Millex-GS, Millipore, USA), and then analyzed on an HPLC system (Agilent Technologies 1200 series). An Agilent Technolgies 1200 series system equipped with a AZD8931 refractive index detector was used. Analyses were performed isocratically this website at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min on an Aminex HPX-87H 300 × 7.8 column (Bio-Rad,
CA, USA) at a constant temperature of 65°C. H2SO4 (0.5 mN) was the mobile phase. External standards were applied for identification and quantification of peak areas. Retention times (Rt) determined for the target compounds were as follows: 1,3-PD – 17.17 min; glycerol – 13.03 min; butyric acid – 20.57 min; acetic acid – 14.4 min and lactic acid – 11.19 min. Protein analyses Proteins LY3023414 were reduced (10 mM DTT, 30 min, 56°C) and alkylated with iodoacetamide in darkness (45 min, 20°C) and digested overnight with 10 ng/μL trypsin. The resulting peptide mixtures were applied to the RP-18 pre-column of a UPLC system (Waters) using water containing 0.1% FA as a mobile phase and then transferred to a nano-HPLC
RP-18 column (internal diameter 75 μm, Waters) using ACN gradient (0 – 35% ACN in 160 min) in the presence of 0.1% FA at a flow rate of 250 μL/min. The column outlet was coupled directly to the ion source of an Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer (Thermo). Each sample was measured in duplicate – once for protein sequencing (data-dependent MS to MS/MS switch) and once for quantitative information (MS only, sequencing disabled). The acquired MS/MS data
were pre-processed with Mascot Distiller software O-methylated flavonoid (v. 2.3, MatrixScience) and a search was performed with the Mascot Search Engine MatrixScience, Mascot Server 2.4) against the set of Clostridium protein sequences derived from Uniprot, merged with its randomized version (16294 sequences; 5095802 residues). The proteins that exactly matched the same set of peptides were combined into a single cluster. The mass calibration and data filtering were carried out with MScan software. The lists of peptides that matched the acceptance criteria from the LC-MS/MS runs were merged into one common list. This common list was overlaid onto 2-D heat maps generated from the LCMS profile datasets by tagging the peptide-related isotopic envelopes with corresponding peptide sequence tags on the basis of the measured/theoretical mass difference, the deviation from the predicted elution time, and the match between the theoretical and observed isotopic envelopes. The abundance of each peptide was determined as the height of a 2-D fit to the monoisotopic peak of the tagged isotopic envelope.